Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
Chapter B 
B-centered lattices/B-centering  
Back focal plane of objective lens in EMs Back focal plane of projector lens in TEM
  Background contrast in TEM/STEM images   Diffractogram background in TEM
  Background in EELS & EFTEM    
  X-ray peak to background ratio in EDS   Background shelf in EDS measurements
  Coefficients of elastic backscattering electrons     Coefficients of inelastic backscattering electrons  
  Dependence of BSEs on atomic number   Backscattering electrons from scintillator in EMs
  Backscattering coefficient of electrons   Separating BSEs from SEs in SEM
  Evaluation of grain orientations based on electron backscattering   Interaction volumes for generation of BSEs
  Backscattered Kikuchi diffraction (BKD)   Backscattered electron detector
  Electron backscattering affected by accelerating voltage   Backscattered electron imaging affected by accelerating voltage of electron beam
  EDS signal affected by secondary and backscattered electrons   Comparison between backscattered electron & secondary electron imagings
Bamboolike microstructure in interconnects in ICs Band structure (BS) methods used in EELS modeling
  Bandgap energies of semiconductor materials   Direct bandgap
  Indirect bandgap   Bandgap energies of dielectrics
  Determination of band gap from low-loss spectra in EELS    
Barium (Ba)
  Ba1-pCr2X4-p (X = ˆS, Se)   Doped and undoped BaTiO3
  EDS and WDS measurements of barium (Ba)   Atomic number contrast of barium (Ba)
  Copper (Cu) interconnects with tantalum (Ta) barrier   Copper (Cu) with dielectric diffusion barrier SiCxNy
  Barriers for copper interconnections   Titanium nitride (Ti2N/TiN) barrier layer
Base-centered orthorhombic structure Basis/motif/lattice point
  Comparison between different batteries    
  Negative (anode) & positive (cathode) electrode materials for lithium batteries   Rechargeable lithium ion batteries
  Lithium-titanium-oxide anodes for batteries   Silicon (Si) alloying anodes in lithium batteries
  Graphite as negative electrodes in lithium batteries   Dimethylacetamide (DMAc)
Bayonet Neill–Concelman (BNC) connector  
  Standard indexed diffraction patterns for bcc crystals   BCC structure at grain boundaries in FCC materials
  bcc-type packing short range ordering of metallic glasses   Diffraction comparison between different cubic crystal structures
  Body-centered (I) lattices   Body-centered orthorhombic (BCO) structures
  bct-type packing short range ordering of metallic glasses    
  Optimized electron beam current for EELS/EFTEM measurements   Dependence of electron probe/beam current on probe size in EMs
Beam blanking deflector in EMs and FIB Beam tilt with dark-field deflection coils
Beam trap aperture in GIF camera  Beam energy broadening in EMs
Beam size broadening in EMs Beam-defining aperture
Bell-shaped field (Glaser’s “Glockenfeld”) in EMs Beam stopper in TEM
  Diffraction variation due to beam tilt in TEM   Beam-tilt induced effects in TEM
  Aberration determinations by image shift due to tilting illumination   Wobbler for coma-free alignment with beam tilt
  Evaluation of beam size in EMs   Lenses for fine probe/beam formation in EMs
  Electron spot/beam size and shape limited by diffraction   Spot/beam size and shape limited by aberrations
  Minimum attainable probe size in STEM    
Beer’s law for EDS measurement  
  FIB/ion-irradiation-induced bending    
  Beryllium nitride   Beryllium borides
  EELS measurement of beryllium (Be)   TEM specimen grids for EDS analysis
  EDS-TEM specimen holders   Beryllium `window' EDS detector
  Be-based metallic-glass alloys    
  Best research-cell efficiencies for solar cells   Best defocus condition for HRTEM imaging
  Bethe stopping power (or Bethe equation)   Two-beam Conditions/first Bethe approximation in TEM Measurements
  Bias-induced contrast/intensity effect in SEM    
Binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) method for cross section calculation Binocular in TEMs
  K-shell binding energy   Binding energy measurement by EELS
  Difference of binding energies in amorphous and crystalline phases    
  Binning in CCD
  Binning/binned pixel/super pixel in CCD   Spatial resolution affected by CCD binning process
  Noise reduction by binning in CCD   Binning versus saturation/exposure time in CCD camera
  Degradation of EELS and EFTEM energy resolution due to binning    
Biological macromolecules
  Point groups of crystals of biological macromolecules    
Biology applications of EMs
  Bremsstrahlung X-rays   EM analysis of biological materials
  Low voltage EMs in biological applications   TEM designs for biological applications
  TEM imaging on biological materials   Biological TEM specimen
  In Situ liquid TEM/STEM analysis   Cryo-focused ion beam (FIB)
  High pressure freezing (HPF) for TEM sample preparation    
Bijvoet (or Friedel) pair & Friedel's law Bipolar resistive switching in perovskite insulators
  Möllenstedt–Düker biprisms in optical and electron microscopes   Fiber/biprism filament in Möllenstedt–Düker biprism for off-axis electron holography
  EDS measurement of bismuth (Bi)    
  Misfit layer chalcogenides: (AX)1+δ(BX2)n (A =ˆ rare earth/Sn/Pb/Sb/Bi; B =ˆ Ti/V/Cr/Nb/Ta; X =ˆ S/Se)   Phase diagrams of Bi-X
  Electron diffraction formation: Bloch-wave approach   Bloch’s theorem
  Bloch electrons   Bloch wave approaches for simulating TEM images
Boersch effect Block crystalline structures
Bmab(Abma, Cmca, 64) space group  
Blooming/smearing in CCD Blurring effect/contrast delocalization in TEM images
Bond pad in IC-devices
  Bond pad contamination in IC-devices    
  Difference between bond lengths of amorphous and crystalline materials   O2- coordination and bond strength
  Bond strength/bond energy   Relationship between bond energy and melting point
Bonding-type substances 
  Ionic bonding-type substances   Covalent bonding-type substances
  Metallic bonding-type substances   van der Waals bonding-type substances
  Hydrogen bonding-type substances    
Born series/first-order Born approximation  
  EDS measurements of boron (B)   EELS measurements of boron (B)
  STEM imaging of boron
  Beryllium borides
  BCl3   MgB2
  Boron nitride (BN)    
  Boron carbide   B-based metallic-glass alloys
  Twinning and twin boundaries    
  Bragg spots in CBED   Excitation error of the Bragg reflections
Bravais lattices  
  Cross section for bremsstrahlung production    
Bridging/spiking failure in ICs  
  Power spectra of bright-field (BF) TEM micrographs   Comparison between TEM and STEM bright field imagings
Brightness of electron gun/illumination in EMs  Bright field (BF) detectors in TEM/STEM
Brillouin zone  
  EELS resolution affected by beam broadening in TEM specimen    
  Broadening of diffraction peak & phonon-electron scattering   Beam energy broadening in EMs
  Broadening of EELS zero-loss peak due to phonon scattering   Electron beam size broadening in TEM/STEM/SEM specimen
  Core-loss peak broadening in EELS   Chromatic and spherical aberrations & beam spread/convergence
  Effect of beam spreading on EDS spatial resolution   Zero-loss peak in EELS and its broadening/width
  Beam spreading in STEM caused by chromatic aberration   Spatial resolution/beam spreading in STEM depending on convergence semiangle
  Point-spread and its function in imaging system  

Broadening of diffraction intensities depending on grain size

  Lattice-fringe visibility & its band & band broadening   Broadening of EDS peaks
Bubble/void/hole in materials   Built-in electric field/potential at material surface due to electron irradiation
Built-in potential in p-n junction  
  Difference of atomic structure between surface, interface, and bulk   Surface & bulk plasmon energy in EELS (theory)
  Surface & bulk plasmon energy in EELS (table)   Energy level diagrams for single atoms, dimers, clusters & bulk materials
  Bulk defects in materials    
  Determination of Burgers vectors of dislocations   Tables of Burgers vectors of dislocations
  Determination of Burgers vector of lattice defects   Burgers circuit & finish-start/right-hand (FS/RH) convention
  Determination of Burgers vector of fcc lattice defects   Tables of Burgers vectors of defects in hexagonal structures
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