Electron microscopy
EDS Measurement of Silver (Ag)
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As discussed on page4650, X-ray absorption is a function of the energy of X-rays. Low energy peaks will be more strongly absorbed than high energies ones. For thick TEM samples, k-factor correction due to X-ray absorption is needed in order to accurately quantify EDS measurements. Table 1316 lists Ag-examples of thicknesses at which the thin-film approximation is no longer valid due to X-ray absorption effects in specific materials.

Table 1316. Examples of limits to the thin-film approximation caused by X-ray absorption: Maximum thicknesses of thin specimens for which the absorption correction (or error) is less than ±10% and ±3%.


10% error in kAB
3% error in kAB
Absorbed X-ray lines
Primary X-ray lines
Thickness (nm)
33 10 Al Kα and Ag Lα Al Kα (1.486 keV) and Ag Lα (2.984 keV)
31 9 Al Kα and Ag Lα Al Kα (1.486 keV) and Ag Lα (2.984 keV)