Interconnections/Interconnect Materials in ICs
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
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In integrated circuits (ICs), conductive lines provide electrical interconnection among different parts of the ICs, devices, and the outside. The main applications of metallization are classified by gate, contact, and interconnection. Polysilicon and silicides are commonly applied as gates and interconnects in MOS devices. Aluminum, copper, tungsten, silver, titanium, platinum, gold, and palladium are used as these types of contacts, connections, and/or interconnection to external components.

Table 2037a. Metallization selections in ICs.

Application
Selection
Gates, interconnection, and
contacts
Polysilicon, refractory metal silicides (e.g. MoSix, TaSix, WSix, and TiSix), nitrides,aluminum, copper, and/or refractory metals.
Diffusion barrier layer
Ti, TiN, Ta, TaN, Ti-W alloy, and/or silicides
Top level
Aluminum, and/or copper
Metallization on silicon
Silicides, tungsten, aluminum, and/or copper

Table 2037b. Properties of interconnect materials.

Silicides Thin film
resistivity
(μΩ − cm)
Thermal expansion (ppm/°C) Si consumption (nm Si/nm Silicide) Melting point (°C)      
Cu
1.7-2.0
1084
     
Al
2.7-3.0
660
     
W
8-15
3410
     
PtSi
28-35
1229
     
NiSi
14-20
992
     
TiN
50-150
~2950
     
Ti30W70
75-200
~2200
     
Heavily
doped polysilicon
500-1000
1410
     
Tetragonal WSi2
50-120
6-8
0.98
2165
     
CoSi2
18-25
~10
1.03
1325
     
MoSi2
20-100
~8
0.99
1980
     
TaSi2
10-50
8-11
0.92
2200
     
C54-TiSi2
12-24
12
0.904
1540
     

 

 

 

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