英语语音(English Pronunciation)

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关于语音的几个概念
1) 字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母a, e, i(y), o, u,

2) 音标:词的语音形式。

3) 音素:音的最小的单位。英语中有48音素。

4) 音节:由元音和辅音构成的发音单位。ap'ple, stu'dent, tea'cher, un'der'stand

5) 元音:发音响亮,是乐音;口腔中气流不收阻碍;是构成音节的主要音。英语中有20元音。

6) 辅音:发音不响亮,是噪音;口腔中气流受到阻碍;不是构成音节的主要音。英语中有28辅音。

7) 开音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音+e name bike; b) 辅音+元音 he, go, hi

8) 闭音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音 bad, bed, sit, hot, cup; b)元音+辅音it

9) 重读音节:单词中发音特别响亮的音节。

2. 元音:(注意:下面空方括号是电脑无法输入的音标)

1) [i:] sea, he, see, piece, ceiling

2) [i] sit, build, miss, myth

3) [e] bed, desk, head,

4) [ ] bad, land, bank, stamp

5) [a:] car, fast, class, plant, calm, aunt

6) [ ] hot, want

7) [ ] door, more, sport, ball, warm, author, court, bought, caught

8) [u:] good, who, blue, soup,

9) [u] look, put, women, could

10) [ ] cup, come, blood, rough

11) [ ] girl, work, serve, nurse

12) [ ] cadre, ago, forget, polite, dollar, doctor, famous, Saturday

13) [ei] cake, they, play, eight, great,

14) [ai] bike, die, neither, light, try, find, height, eye

15) [ ] phone, cold, boat, soul, grow

16) [au] house, town

17) [ ] boy, oil

18) [ ] dear, idea, deer, here, fierce,

19) [ ] pear, care, there, fair

20) [ ] tour, poor,

3. 容易混淆的元音

1) [e] [] bed bad; men, man; pen, pan; lend land

2) [i:] [ei] real rail; greet, great; mean, main; read raid

3) [e] [ai] bet bite; red write; said side, head, hide

4) [au] [ ] house horse; loud lord; south sauce; now nor; count corn; cloud clause

5) [au] [ ] found fond; gown gone; down don

4. 辅音

1) [p] pen,

2) [b] bed, comb

3) [t] tell,

4) [d], day, played, wanted

5) [k] cold, sky, quick, school, back, accept, box

6) [g] big, go, guess, language

7) [m] man

8) [n] nine, knife, autumn

9) [ ] bank, uncle, English, sing,

10) [l] land, world

11) [r] read, write,

12) [f] five, cough, laugh

13) [v] voice, of

14) [ ] think,

15) [ ] this, bathe

16) [s] sit, miss, science, case, scarf

17) [z] zoo, close,

18) [ ] sure, she, social, nation

19) [ ] pleasure,

20) [h] hot, who, hour

21) [w] wall, what, answer

22) [j] yes

23) [ ] child, teach, catch

24) [ ] joke, bridge,

25) [ts] boats

26) [dz] goods

27) [tr] tree

28) [dr] dream

5. 容易混淆的辅音

1) [v] [w] vet wet; vest west; vine wine; very well

2) [s] [ ] sink think; sort thought; miss myth; mass math

3) [z] [ ] closing clothing; breeze breathe; bays bathes

4) [n] [ ] thin thing; sin sing; ban bang win wing; ran rang

6. 读音规则

1) 重读音节(见元音和辅音的例句)

2) 非重读音节 [ ] banana, student, today, after,

[i] orange, secret, evening, very, Monday

7. 特殊读音

1) 音的连读:not at all, half an hour, I love you and all. after all

2) 失去爆破:good girl, good student, good job, expression, school, extreme

3) 音的同化:this year, Would you do it? Can't you see it?

8. 重音

1)单词重音

A)双音节词

a)一般在第一个音节重读。letter, sorry

b)有 a-, be-, de-, re-, res-, in-, im-, en-, em-, es-, ex-, con-, com-, dis-, mis-, pre-, per-, pro-, trans- 等前缀的词,第二个音节是重音。

a'bout, be'lieve, ad'dress, de'cide, re'port, con'demn, res'pect, com'pare, in'form, dis'cuss,

im'press, mis'take, en'force, pre'pare, em'ploy, per'mit, es'cape, pro'duce, ex'claim,trans'late

c)有 de-, in-, re-, con-, pre- 等前缀的重音与词义和词类有关, 一般名词的重音在第一个音节上,其它的词性在第二个音节上。

'record, re'cord; 'insult, in'sult; 'conduct, con'duct; 'present pre'sent; 'content, con'tent

d)有些复合词和带有前缀 re-, ex-, un-, pre-, post-, 等的词,有两个重音。

'out'side, 're'tell, 'well-'known, 'un'real, 'fif'teen, 'Chi'nese, 'pre-'war, 'post-'war

B)多音节词

a)一般倒数第三个音节是重音。'difficult, 'communist, 'family, e'conomy, oppor'tunity,de'mocracy.

b)有一些双音节词,加了前缀和后缀成了多音节,但这些词按原来词根的重音读音。

'carefully, in'definite, 'comfortable, con'ductor, ac'cording, dis'turbance, 'complicated,es'tablishment,

c)词尾有-eous, -grahpy, -ial, -ian, -ic, -ics, -ience, ient, -ify, -ion, -ious, -ity, ive 后缀的词,重音在这些后缀的前一个音节上。

cour'teous, cal'ligraphy, edi'torial, his'torian, peri'odic, mathe'matics, ex'perience,suf'ficient, i'dentify, trans'lation, re'ligious, curi'osity, pro'tective

d)词尾有 -ain, -ee, -eer, -ese, -ette 后缀的词,重音在该后缀上,而且有一个次重音。enter'tain, emplo'yee, mountai'neer, Japa'nese, ciga'rette

2)句子重音

A) 英语的节奏:(轻)-轻-重-轻-(轻)或重-轻-(轻)(轻)重

B) 英语句子的长短:是由句子中的重读词的数目决定的,而不是象汉语那样由句子中的汉字数目决定的。

C) 实词重读(副词重读),虚词轻读(冠词,单音节介词,单音节连词,人称代词,反代词,物主代词,关系代词,相互代词,助动词,情态动词和系动词be.

D) 实词不重读的特殊情况

a) 实词第二次出现

He thinks of that as a child thinks.

b) 一个名词被第二个名词修饰

I met her in the railway station.

c) 代替词

Which book do you want? The small one.

d) 感叹词中的 what 和how

What a good day it is! How beautiful she is!

e) street 在专有名词中

Wangfujing Street.

f) this在这些短语中,this morning/afternoon/evening

E)虚词重读的特殊情况

a) 情态动词,助动词和系动词be在句首,句尾和否定时。

Do you like it? Yes, I do. Are you a doctor? Yes, I am. Can you help me? Yes, I can.

I don't like you. He isn't a worker.

b) 情态动词表示可能,惊奇和肯定时。

They may come this evening. Can it be five already? He must be in the room.

c) 介词在句首和句尾。

In the box, he found a letter. He is the person I talked with.

d) 引导复合句的连词在句首。

If you wish, I'll visit you. When he comes, I'll tell him.

e)反身代词表示强调。

He couldn't come himself.

 


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