Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index 
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
 Chapter D 
d shell electrons
  Outer d shell electrons    
  d-spacing ratios of allowed Bragg reflections for some space groups    
D-SUB 44 connector  


  Damage cross section of atoms from electron irradiation   Dependence of radiation damage on accelerating voltage of electrons
  Sample damage in TEM measurements   Electron beam damage depending on TEM/SEM specimen thickness
  Atom loss during EM measurements   Cross section for bulk and surface diffusion induced by electron irradiation
  Cross-sections of atom displacement due to electron irradiation in bulk   Displacement damage
  Preferential electron-beam etching of grain boundaries    
  Sputtering/knock-on of atoms from beam-exit surface of TEM sample   Cross-sections of surface sputtering/knock-on induced by electron irradiation
IV. Damage induced artifacts
  EDS artifacts induced by beam damage   Elemental loss in EM specimen detected by EDS
V. Damage solutions & monitoring
  Electron beam damage monitored by EELS   Low e-beam current density to minimize specimen damage in EELS measurements
  Step size used for beam damage reduction during elemental mapping   EM improvements for reducing beam damage
  Coating of TEM specimen to reduce beam damage & sputtering    
VI. Damage: Others
  Problems/damage of apertures   Damage of TEM specimen holder
  Damage of EDS detectors   Ion-beam induced structural change/damage at surfaces in FIB


  Temporal-coherence envelope function   TEM/STEM characteristics affected by CTF damping
  Dangling-bonds in grain boundaries    
  Dark current and its removal in EELS and EFTEM    
 Dark-field (DF) imagings
  Dark-field (DF) imaging in TEM   Beam tilt with dark-field deflection coils
  Annular dark-field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)   ADF-TEM (annular dark-field transmission electron microscopy) aperture
Data acquisition and analysis using PC in EMs Data acquisition times of various techniques
de Broglie wave equation Dead time in EDS measurement
Dead layers in EDS detectors Debye phonon model
Debye-Scherrer rings in electron diffraction patterns Decagonal quasicrystal
Decay probability from initial state to final state De-excitation process of electrons
  TEM image processing and deconvolution   Deconvolution in EELS
  Fourier–log deconvolution in EELS   Fourier-ratio method for EELS deconvolution
  Deconvolution for noise reduction in EEL spectra    
  Dependence of single and multiple inelastical scatterings of electrons on TEM sample thickness   Richardson-Lucy deconvolution
  Maximum-entropy deconvolution   Deconvolution in EDS analysis
Dedicated STEM (DSTEM) systems   Defect: Lens defects
  Deep level states in band gap analyzed by EELS    
  TEM analysis of defects in amorphous materials     Defect analysis by TEM/STEM
  Interfacial defects   Point defects
  Defects in metallic glasses   Bulk defects
  Line defects   Dark patches
  Dissociation   Defects in crystalline materials in LEDs
  Generation of defects in crystals   Anisotropy of thermal expansion coefficients due to defects
  Theoretical interpretation of STEM/TEM images about crystalline defects   Determination of Burgers vector of lattice defects
  Generation of defects in crystals depending on cooling rates   {113} or {311} defects
  Defects in crystals formed by ion-implantation and annealing   Analysis of crystal deformation/distortion
Deficiency lines in zero-order disc in CBED patterns Deflection angle in electron holography
Double arrow annotation on Gatan DigitalMicrograph  
  Electron-beam deflecting/scanning coil control system   Double deflection scan coils in STEMs
  Shutter used in EELS and EFTEM measurements   Beam blanking deflector in EMs and FIB
  Defocus spread/fluctuation in EMs   Focusing/defocusing action in EMs
  Focusing action of lens    Defocus induced by chromatic aberration/energy deviation in electrons
  Standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution of defocus due to the chromatic aberration    
  Scherzer defocus   Gabor defocus
  Lichte’s defocus   In-focus in TEM imaging
  Focusing sensitivity in TEM imaging   Standard focus/Eucentric height versus sample tilt in TEM
  Wavefunction in defocusing plane in TEM imaging   Defocus affecting Fresnel fringes in TEM images
  Phase shift from defocus and spherical aberration   Aberration coefficients determined by defocus-based techniques
  Minimum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging with Gaussian defocus   Maximum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging (with Scherzer defocus)
  Best/optimum defocus condition for HRTEM imaging    
  Defocus series in TEM imaging   TEM defocusing imaging of interfaces
Defocus/defocus: Diffraction
  Focus of electron diffraction in TEM    
Defocus/defocus: STEM
  Defocused convergent incident electron beam   HRSTEM image contrast as function of defocus
  Defocus series in STEM imaging   Sensitivity of STEM contrast to focus
  Sensitivity of CTF to defocus of objective lens    
Defocus/defocus: EFTEM/EELS
  Spectrum focus adjustment in EFTEM   Dependence of defocus on EELS and quantitative analysis  
  Effects of defocus on EELS    
DeGauss function in EMs Delay: RC time delays in ICs
  Contrast delocalization/blurring effect in TEM images   SEM resolution affected by delocalization of inelastic scattering
  Delocalization of EELS measurements   Delocalization in inelastic scattering
  Image localization in STEM    
Delta-type aberration correctors Demonstrations by EM manufacturers
  Nano-dendrites and their formation    
Densities in materials
  (Atomic) density of different materials   Packing density in some crystal planes
  TEM contrast/fringes at interface between two materials   Density of valence electrons of materials
  Partial density of states (PDOS)   Density-functional theory (DFT)
  Density-functional theory (DFT) simulations of EELS profiles   Joint density of states (JDOS)
Diffraction aperture, field limiting aperture, selected area diffraction aperture Deformation (plastic) 
Demagnification in EMs Desktop/portable/tabletop SEM
Descan of electron beam in (S)TEM Desktop computers
Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in EELS and imaging system  
  FIB (ion beam) induced deposition (IBID)   Charging enhanced electron/ion-beam-induced-deposition
  Material growth on convex surfaces   Gallium contamination due to FIB milling & in FIB deposits
  Laser beam direct writing (LBW)    
  Amorphization of materials induced by e-beam Pt deposition    
  Depth of field in EM   Depth of focus in EM
  Depth sensitivity & spatial resolution of EBSD   Depth sensitivity of REELS & Dependence of depth on primary electron beam energy/incident angle/collection angle
  Penetration depth/implant depth/trajectory of ions in FIB milling    
Destructive: Visual inspection for destructive and/or nondestructive analysis of IC chips Detector envelope function for EM imaging
  Detectors for SEM   Secondary electron detecting/amplifying system in EMs
  Contribution of transfer properties of detector to diffractograms   EBSD detector
  HAADF detectors      
  CBED pattern symmetries for crystal determination   Phase identification procedure by CBED
  Indexing CBED patterns   Existing of extinction bands within forbiddden reflections in CBED patterns
  Determination of crystal structures using electron diffraction technique   Determination of crystal structures using HRTEM technique
  Departure from Friedel’s law in CBED patterns    
Deviation parameter/excitation error of Bragg reflections    
Dew Point Diameter of electron beam
  High-k dielectric materials   Static or low-frequency dielectric constant
  Bandgap energies of dielectrics   Dielectric constant of ferroelectric crystals
  Ferroelectric dielectric hysteresis & hysteresis loop   Linear lossless dielectrics
  Linear lossy dielectrics   Non-linear lossless dielectrics
  Non-linear lossy dielectrics    
Dielectric response/function of material valence electrons Dielectric-constant determination by EELS
  Extinctions and weak spots showing in electron diffraction patterns of diamond   Diffraction comparison between different cubic crystal structures
  Solid solubility of various impurities in carbon/diamond   Diamond structure
Differential correlation function Difficulties/challenges: advanced EM-related measurements and analyses
  Cross section: Inelastic differential (introduction & theory)    
  Diffraction of plane wave from multiple point sources   X-ray diffraction
  Electron diffraction in TEM     Fraunhofer diffraction
  Intermediate/diffraction lens    
Diffraction-induced artifacts in measurements
  Channelling/diffraction enhanced X-ray emission in EDS measurements    
Diffuse diffraction streaks in electron diffraction from columnar substructures Diffuse scattering (incoherent scattering) of electrons in TEM
Diffuse scattering in electron diffraction due to crystalline disorder Diffused and polysilicon resistors
Diffusion of atoms in materials
  Diffusionless phase transformation   Activation energy of diffusion
  Vacancy detection by elemental diffusion
Diffusion coefficients 
  Diffusion coefficients of elements in various materials   Diffusion/penetration/diffusivity of elements through grain boundaries
  Diffusion/diffusivity of elements through single crystals   Diffusion/diffusivity of elements through surfaces
  Differential pumping aperture (DPA) in EMs   Silicon oils from diffusion pump
  Set flyback time in DigiScan image to avoid image distortion     Gatan FireWire adapter (GFA) (DigiScan/Compliant/Legacy ) software/hardware
  Digital electro-optical imaging sensor   Digital holography
  Digital imaging camera   Gatan Digital Micrograph
  Rewritable digital versatile disks   Digital-filtered least-squares peak fitting for EDS quantification
Dimension/size Dimethylacetamide (DMAc)
  Energy level diagrams for single atoms, dimers, clusters & bulk materials    
  Semiconducting light-emitting diodes (LEDs)   Semiconducting laser diodes (LDs)
Dipole design for Cs corrector in EMs Dipole transitions in electron excitations
  Interference between direct and diffracted beams in TEM   Direct bandgap
  Direct methods   Direct interband transition
Direction of spontaneous polarization in ferroelectrics  
  Angle between directions   Close packed planes and directions in crystals
Director/manager of electron microscope labs Disadvantages
Drawback/disadvantage of STEM imaging  
Discharging and charging in electron guns Discrete/continuous/fast Fourier transform (DFT/CFT/FFT)
  Consideration of X-radiation protection in EM design    
Disk size/radius in CBED  
Dislocations in crystals
  Sense vector   Vector description of crystal dislocations
  Visibility/contrast of dislocations and stacking faults in TEM and EMs   Frank’s rule in dislocation theory
  Dislocation node   SiGe/Si system and its defects
  Misfit dislocation: Lattice mismatch versus misfit dislocation separation   Extra energy introduced by dislocations
  Dislocation density   Dislocation detection by CBED and LACBED 
  Ostwald ripening/coarsening of dislocation loops   Perfect dislocations
  Widths of dislocations   Determination of Burgers vectors of dislocations
  Dislocation cores
  Dislocation formation during TEM observation
Dislocations: Burgers vector
  Determination of Burgers vectors of dislocations   Burgers circuit
  Burgers vectors of dislocations (Tables)    
Dislocations: Edge dislocations  
  Clustering of vacancies into dislocation loops   Glide and dislocation loops
Dislocations: Mixed dislocations
  Motion and slip of mixed dislocation
Dislocations: screw dislocation
  Screw dislocation formation due to shear stress   Types of screw dislocations
  Bonding disorder in materials   Diffuse scattering in electron diffraction due to crystalline disorder
  Electron-beam-tilt-induced image displacement in TEM   Atomic displacement parameter/factor & mean-square atomic displacement
  Displacement energy for bulk and surface diffusion induced by electron irradiation   Elemental (atomic) displacement threshold due to electron irradiation in bulk
  Displacement energy for surface sputtering/knock-on induced by electron irradiation   Elemental (atomic) displacement threshold of chemical elements due to electron irradiation at sample surface
  Cross-sections of atom displacement due to electron irradiation in bulk   Elemental (atomic) displacement threshold due to electron irradiation
  Energy transfer for atomic displacement/knock-on process due to electron irradiation   Displacement energy for atoms in bulk and at sample surface due to electron irradiation
Displacive ferroelectrics Distance between two electrons in electron beam in EMs
  Projector lenses and image distortion in EMs   Image distortion correction in FETEM
  Set flyback time in DigiScan image to avoid image distortion     Correction of electron beam distortion in EMs
  Artifacts in off-axis electron holograms: distortions   Distortion/asymmetry of X-ray peak from Gaussian shape in EDS
  Angular distribution    
Divergent lenses Dodecagonal quasicrystal
Dodecapole/hexapole/double-hexapole/sextupole design for Cs corrector in EMs  
  Angle between polarization vectors of adjacent domains in various crystalline phases in ferroelectrics    
  Techniques for dopant profiling in semiconductors   SEM contrast dependence on dopants in semiconductors
  Measurement of electric field/dopant/p-n junction using off-axis electron holography   Dependence of dopant contrast in Si on accelerating voltage of primary electron in SEM
  Dopant-selective etching/staining in IC analysis   Dopant deactivation induced by FIB sample preparation
  Change of lattice parameter due to doping    
  Electron dose of electron beam   Measurement of probe current
  Electron dose inducing material damage in bulk and at sample surface   Ion irradiation dose
  Minimum electron dose for sufficient EELS counts   Low dose TEM/STEM imaging
Double cross-sections for examination of damage of prepared EM sample surface Double deflection scan coils in STEMs
Double perovskite crystalline structures  
  EELS spectrum energy (and zero-loss) drift    Electron beam drift/instability/movement in TEMs/STEMs
  Specimen drift/instability/movement in TEMs/STEMs   Contribution of specimen drift to diffractograms
  Drift tube in GIF system   Spatial resolutions limited by specimen drifts
  Spatial drift & its correction in EFTEM imagings   Drift & jump of EEL spectra or images
  Degradation of EDS spatial resolution due to specimen drift   Degradation of EELS spatial resolution due to specimen drift
Driving force for the phase transition in materials Drude-Lorentz model
Dual beam FIB/SEM Dynamic characteristics of voltage contrast
Dynamic range of camera  Dynamical effects of PED (precession electron diffraction)
  Pendellösung/Pendellosung fringes in crystals   Dynamical theory for energetic electron-matter interaction
  Dynamical extinction lines in CBED patterns    
  Double/multiple diffraction in electron diffraction patterns   Two-beam dynamical electron scattering/diffraction
Dwell times
  Dwell time/scan speed in TEM/STEM imaging and elemental mapping