Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
Chapter H  
  EELS measurement of hafnium   EDS measurement of hafnium
  HfO2/HfOx   HfSiO4
  Hf-X phase diagrams    
Halite/rock salt Halo feature in electron diffraction patterns
  Halogens in Periodic table & halogen gases      
  Hard X-rays   Hard collision between charged particle and atom
Hartree-Slater model for electron excitation modeling & EELS HD 2700C electron microscope
  Heat generation/temperature rise by irradiation of electron beams   Heating versus phonons formed in EMs
  TEM/STEM heating holders   Heat capacity and specific heat of materials
Heavy elements
  Contrast difference between heavy and light elements   EDS quantification of heavy elements
Helical trajectory/image rotation & inversion in magnetic fields  
Helium  (He)
  HeIM or SHIM (scanning helium ion microscopy)    EELS Measurement of Helium (He)
  TEM observation of helium   Helium (He) sputtering
Hematite/haematite (Fe2O3) Hermann-Mauguin/international notations for symmetry elements
  ZnSSe-based/GaAs heterostructures    
  Relationship between the hexagonal and primitive rhombohedral unit cells   HRTEM imaging and electron diffraction of hexagonal symmetry
  Tables of Burgers vectors of defects in hexagonal structures   Comparison between hexagonal and C54
  Comparison between hexagonal and tetragonal (or orthorhombic) cells
  Hexagonal wurtzite structure   Two-dimensional hexagonal atomic sheet
  HCP structure at grain boundaries in FCC materials   Standard indexed diffraction patterns for hcp crystals 
  Indexing of trigonal and hexagonal systems   Examples of indexed electron diffraction patterns of HCP crystals
  6 point group   -6 point group
  6/m point group   622 point group
  6mm point group   -62m point group
  6/mmm point group   c/a ratios in hcp structures
Hexagonal space groups
P (primitive) lattices & their space groups          
P6 (168) P61 (169) P65 (170) P62 (171) P64 (172) P63 (173) P-6 (174) P6/m (175)
P63/m (176) P622 (177) P6122 (178) P6522 (179) P6222 (180) P6422 (181) P6322 (182) P6mm (183)
P6cc (184) P63cm (185) P63mc (186) P-6m2 (187) P-6c2 (188) P-62m (189) P-62c (190) P6/mmm
P6/mcc (192) P63/mcm (193) P63/mmc (194) P6m2        
  Hexapole/sextupole/double-hexapole design for Cs corrector in EMs   Hexapole for chromatic aberration (Cc) corrections
  Hexapole/sextupole lens application in GIF system    
  Detection of high energy X-rays in EDS   High pressure freezing (HPF) for TEM sample preparation
  Pumps for high and ultra-high vacuums   High contrast aperture in TEMs
  Comparison of EDS measurements with low- & high-energy incident electrons    
High angle
  High angle elastic scattering of electrons   High angle elastic scattering of ions
  Electrons emitted at low & high angles from electron guns   High-angle electron scattering in EMs
  HAADF detectors     Contrast analysis of HAADF-STEM images
  Atomic number (Z)-contrast Imaging on STEM    Incoherence in HAADF imaging
  Rutherford (elastic) scattering & HAADF   Thermal diffuse (quasi-elastically) scattering (TDS)
  Aberration correction for HAADF imaging   Thickness requirements of TEM samples for HAADF STEM
  Sample requirements for high resolution atomic-number contrast HAADF imaging   Electron channeling in HAADF STEM imaging
  Simulation of HAADF-STEM images   Determination of specimen thickness by HAADF-STEM
  HAADF-STEM images of amorphous metallic glasses   Thermal-diffuse-scattering in in-situ heating HAADF-STEM
  Comparison between HRTEM and HR-HAADF-STEM imaging    
  EELS analysis of high-k dielectric materials    
High power devices (of ICs)  
  Shift of HOLZ patterns relative to ZOLZ patterns   Higher order Laue zones (HOLZ) lines in CBED
  Indexing HOLZ patterns   Radius of HOLZ rings
  Splitting of HOLZ lines in CBED patterns    
  High-resolution EELS (HREELS)   Advanced/atomic/high resolution/latest SEMs
  HRSEM/high resolution SEM imaging   HRSTEM/high resolution STEM imaging  
  Minimum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging with Gaussian defocus   Maximum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging (with Scherzer defocus)
  Electron beam coherence vs HRTEM   Comparison between HRTEM and HR-HAADF-STEM imaging
  Intensity distribution of HRTEM image   Performance criteria in HRTEM
  Information limit in HRTEM   Thon rings in bright-filed imaging
  Best defocus condition for HRTEM imaging   Structure factor and HRTEM
  Phase of Fourier components in HRTEM images   Amplitudes of HRTEM image
  Fourier transform and FFT of HRTEM image of crystalline materials   Fourier transform and FFT of HRTEM image of amorphous materials
  Objective aperture for HRTEM imaging   Aberrations and imaging requirements for small field of view in EMs
  High resolution TEM imaging dependence on unit cell size   HRTEM imaging of cubic structures
  HRTEM imaging of hexagonal symmetry   HRTEM imaging of perovskite structures
  HRTEM images of atomic short-range ordering in crystals   Phase extension procedure
  HRTEM and electron diffraction of crystals with trigonal symmetry   HRTEM imags of orthorhombic crystalline structures
  Accuracy of angle measurement in HRTEM and FFT images   HRTEM images & electron diffraction of amorphous metallic glasses
  Accuracy of lattice spacing measurements by HRTEM/FFT/electron diffraction   Crossed lattice fringes to form HRTEM images
  HRTEM analysis of light elements   Comparisons between HRTEM and EELS techniques
  Determination of crystal structures using HRTEM technique    
  BCC structure at grain boundaries in FCC materials   Chevron Defect
 High voltage
  Accelerating voltage/tube in EMs    
  Advantages and disadvantages of low-/high-voltage TEM & STEM   Electron-gun high-voltage power supply in EMs
  High voltage fluctuation/stability in microscopes   Ultrahigh voltage TEMs
  Wobbler for high tension in TEM/STEM   High tension offset for image filtering for elemental analysis
  Development history of silicon drift detectors   History of electron microscopies (EMs)
  History of TEM   Development history of SEM technique
  History of EBSD development   History of EELS technique
      Development history of X-ray analysis for EMs
  History of In Situ/environmental TEM/STEM observations   Development history of silicon drift detectors
Highlight bright features in EM images  
Hitachi Advanced Research Laboratory & Its EMs Hilbert-type phase plates for TEMs
  TEM/STEM specimen holders   Side-entry goniometer stages/holders in TEMs/STEMs
  Top-entry goniometer stages/holders in TEMs/STEMs   Damage of TEM specimen holder
  Mounting of TEM grid in grid-holder of FIB system   STM holders for EMs
  EDS-TEM specimen holders   Sample stage in FIB systems
  Vacuum at EM stages    
  TEM holders for in-situ chemical processes   Liquid/gas TEM and STEM stage and holder
  TEM/STEM holders for in-situ electrical biasing   TEM/STEM holders for in-situ nano-indentation analysis
  TEM/STEM holders for strain analysis   Piezo drive TEM/STEM holders
  TEM/STEM cooling holders   TEM/STEM heating holders
“Hole Count” in X-ray measurements Hole/bubble/void in materials  
Hole mask in Gatan system (Holey) carbon supports for EM analysis
  Gabor’s (in-line) holography   Digital holography
Holography: Electron holography
  In-line electron holography   Requirements to form electron hologram
  Fringe spacing in electron holography   Procedure to produce electron holography images
  Spatial resolution of electron holography   Gabor defocus
  Theory for simulating and reconstructing electron holograms   Unique measurements by holography
  Artifacts in electron holography measurements   Spatial coherence/incoherence in EMs
  Dopant deactivation induced by FIB sample preparation   TEM sample thickness determination by electron holography
  Electron holography study of nanoparticles   Strain analysis using electron holography
  Optimization of specimen thickness for electron holography analysis   Comparison between CBED and electron holography
  Experiments and analysis of off-axis electron holography   Aberration correction using off-axis electron holography technique
  Measurement of electric field/dopant/p-n junction using off-axis electron holography   Measurement of magnetic field using off-axis electron holography
  Fiber in Möllenstedt–Düker biprisms for off-axis electron holography   Reconstruction of off-axis holograms
  Artifacts in off-axis electron holograms: distortions   Interference width in off-axis hologram
  Voltage at biprism filament in off-axis electron holography   Deflection angle in off-axis electron holography
  Lorentz lens/mode for TEMs    
Holohedral point groups Hough transform
Hume-Rothery (HR) compounds Hybrid EMs
  sp3 hybridization   sp2 hybridization
Hydrocarbon (HC) 
  Hydrocarbon (HC) & carbon contamination of EM specimens    
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching  
  EELS Measurements of hydrogen (H)   HCl
  Hydrogen bonding-type substances    
Hydrogenic model for electron excitation modeling  
  Ferroelectric dielectric hysteresis & hysteresis loop   Hysteresis factor in electron microscopes
  Hysteresis removal in electron microscopes