Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index 
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
 Chapter P
P (primitive) lattices & their space groups
P1 (1) P-1 (2)            
P2 (3) P21 (4) Pm (6) Pc (7) P2/m (10) P21/m (11) P2/c (13) P21/c (14)
P222 (16) P2221 (17) P21212 (18) P212121 (19) Pmm2 (25) Pmc21 (26) Pcc2 (27) Pma2 (Pbm2, 28)
Pca21 (Pbc21, P21ab, 29) Pnc2 (30) Pmn21 (31) Pba2 (32) Pna21 (P21cn, 33) Pnn2 (34) Pmmm (47) Pnnn (48)
Pccm (49) Pban (50) Pmma (51) Pnna (52) Pmna (53) Pcca (54) Pbam (55) Pccn (56)
Pbcm (57) Pnnm (58) Pmmn (59) Pbcn (60) Pbca (61) Pnma/Pbnm (62)    
P4 (75) P41 (76) P42 (77) P43 (78) P-4 (81) P4/m (83) P42/m (84) P4/n (85)
P42/n (86) P422 (89) P4212 (90) P4122 (91) P41212 (92) P4222 (93) P42212 (94) P4322 (95)
P43212 (96) P4mm (99) P4bm (100) P42cm (101) P42nm (102) P4cc (103) P4nc (104) P42mc (105)
P42bc (106) P-42m (111) P-42c (112) P-421m (113) P-421c (114) P-4m2 (115) P-4c2 (116) P-4b2 (117)
P-4n2 (118) P4/mmm (123) P4/mcc (124) P4/nbm (125) P4/nnc (126) P4/mbm (127) P4/mnc (128) P4/nmm (129)
P4/ncc (130) P42/mmc (131) P42/mcm (132) P42/nbc (133) P42/nnm (134) P42/mbc (135) P42/mnm (136) P42/nmc (137)
P42/ncm (138)              
P3 (143) P31 (144) P32 (145) P-3 (147) P312 (149) P321 (150) P3112 (151) P3121 (152)
P3212 (153) P3221 (154) P3m1 (156) P31m (157) P3c1 (158) P31c (159) P-31m (162) P-31c (163)
P-3m1 (164) P-3c1 (165)            
P6 (168) P61 (169) P65 (170) P62 (171) P64 (172) P63 (173) P-6 (174) P6/m (175)
P63/m (176) P622 (177) P6122 (178) P6522 (179) P6222 (180) P6422 (181) P6322 (182) P6mm (183)
P6cc (184) P63cm (185) P63mc (186) P-6m2 (187) P-6c2 (188) P-62m (189) P-62c (190) P6/mmm
P6/mcc (192) P63/mcm (193) P63/mmc (194) P6m2        
P23 (195) P213 (198) Pm-3 (200) Pn-3 (201) Pa-3 (205) P432 (207) P4232 (208) P4332 (212)
P4132 (213) P-43m (215) P-43n (218) Pm-3m (221) Pn-3n (222) Pm-3n (223) Pn-3m (224)  
P105/mmc Pm-35            
Comparison between Space Group P1 and Space Group Irnmm  
p-i-n structures
  Applications of p-i-n structures in EM-related devices    
p-n junction
  Built-in potential in p-n junction   PVC of pn-junction structures/diodes
p-well contacts and p-contacts in ICs
  PVC of p-well contacts in ICs   PVC of n-contacts in p-well in ICs
  PVC of p-contacts in n-well in ICs    
  IC failure induced during wafer packaging and shipping    
Packing density in some crystal planes Packing factor (atomic) in crystals
Pair correlation function (PCF) Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis
  EELS measurement of palladium (Pd)   EDS measurement of palladium (Pd)
  SEM and STEM observation of Pd (Palladium) particles   Palladium in ICs
  Pd-based metallic-glass alloys   Palladium oxide (PdO)
Parabaloid method for image series reconstruction with TEM Parallax (film thickness) measurements
Parallel illumination in TEM Parallel: Comparison of microscope conditions with parallel and convergent beams
Paramagnetic materials Parallel EELS spectrometer (PEELS)
Parasitic aberrations in multipole corrector optics Paraxial ray focus
Paraxial rays (electrons) in EMs Partial coherence of electron source
Partial density of states (PDOS) Partial cross-sections for inner-shell ionization
Partial, total and integral cross-sections for inner-shell ionization  
Particle & Nanoparticle
  EDS artifact of measurement on (nano-) particles   Requirements and preparation of nano-particles TEM samples
  SEM and STEM observation of Pd (Palladium) particles   Wave-particle duality
  Killer particles causing IC failure   Particle analysis with DM and scripts
  Requirements and preparation of nano-particles TEM samples    
  Positive charging case of PVC in FIB and SEM   Artifacts in PVC in FIB and SEM
  Advanced mechanisms of PVC contrast   Negative charging case of PVC in SEM
  Short failure in IC devices detected by PVC   PVC of pn-junction structures/diodes
  PVC of gate contacts   PVC of n-well contacts in ICs
  PVC of p-well contacts in ICs   PVC of n-contacts in p-well in ICs
  PVC of p-contacts in n-well in ICs   Equivalent circuit diagram of PVC in FIB and SEM
  Dependence of PVC generation on area and/or volume of connected conducting materials   PVC of transistors
  PVC of capacitors   Optimized conditions for PVC observations
  Dark patches    
Pattern center determination in EBSD Patterson method
Patterson space group Pauli exclusion principle
PC/remote application in EMs  
  Computer- & remote-control on electron microscopes   Data acquisition and analysis using PC in EMs
Peak-detector/peak-stretcher in EDS systems Peak pile-up continuum in x-ray/EDS profiles
Peak broadenings in EELS
  Core-loss peak broadening in EELS   Broadening of EELS zero-loss peak due to phonon scattering
Peak-to-background ratios
  Peak-to-background ratio in EELS    
Peak splitting in XRD profiles Peak identification in EDS measurements
Pearson symbols Peltier thermoelectric cooling
Peltier mechanical cooling Pendellösung/Pendellosung fringes in crystals
Penetration/diffusion of elements through grain boundaries Penetration depth of energetic incident electrons in materials
Penning gauge/(cold cathode) ionization gauge Pentagonal Penrose tiling
Perfect dislocations Perfect/ideal lenses in EMs
(Peripheral Component Interconnect) PCI based firewire card  
Peripheral electrons removed by objective aperture Peripheral electrons emitted from electron guns
Periodic/step features in HRTEM images 
  HCP Structure at Grain Boundaries in FCC Materials   9R structure at grain boundaries in FCC materials
  Periodic table for analytical TEM (EDS/EELS) analysis   Periodic table for EELS analysis
  Periodic table for EDS analysis   Atomic Weight of Elements in Periodic Table
  Most Common Crystal Structure of Elements in Periodic Table   Alkali metals, Halogens, Transition metals, and Noble Gases in Periodic table
  Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals in periodic table   Periodic table of X-ray absorption edges
  Periodic table for electron affinity   Periodic table for atomic & ionic radii and valence states of elements
  Abundance in Earth's Crust of the elements   Periodic table for SIMS measurement
  Digital Micrograph script to create a periodic table    
Permittivity of materials  
  Double perovskite crystalline structures   HRTEM imaging of perovskite structures
  Goldschmidt tolerance factor   CaTiO3
  Extra electron diffraction spots from perovskite crystalline structures   [100] zone axis of perovskite structures
  Perovskite-like ferroelectrics    
  LaMnO3   Bipolar resistive switching in perovskite insulators
 Phase in EMs
  Phase of Fourier components in HRTEM images   Phase shift of electrons induced by objective lens
  Phase-contrast in TEM images   Phase correlation function (PCF)
  Phase shift from defocus and spherical aberration    
  Minimum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging with Gaussian defocus   Maximum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging (with Scherzer defocus)
  Phase object approximation (POA)    Phase contrast transfer function/phase distortion function 
  Phase extension procedure   Phase-contrast microscopy
  Phase shift of incident electrons induced by TEM specimen   Phase shift of electrons depending on scattering angle in TEM/STEM
  Scherzer phase plate   Beam convergence angle/coherence effects on phase shift
  Zernike-type phase plate for TEMs   Hilbert-type phase plates for TEMs
Phase of materials
  Phase identification with XRD and its procedure   Crystalline phase analysis by EELS and its plasmon
  Phase separation in metallic glasses   Indexing of crystal structures
  Phase-induced splitting of reflections in electron diffraction patterns    
  First-order phase transitions   First-order ferroelectric phase transitions
  Second-order phase transitions   Shuffle transformation
  Phase change optical storage media   Rewritable phase-change optical memory disks
  Diffusionless phase transformation   Driving force for the phase transition in materials
  Martensitic transformation   Phase transitions inducing ferroelectricity
  Vibration of atoms/phonon    
  Phonon excitation and thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) of electrons in EMs   Phonons formed in EMs versus heating
  Phonon effect on electron diffraction patterns   Phonon effect on TEM imaging
  Responding time of phonon emission for electron irradiation   Broadening of EELS zero-loss peak due to phonon scattering
  Broadening of diffraction peak & phonon-electron scattering   Debye phonon model
  EDS measurements of phosphorus (P)   EELS measurements of phosphorus (P)
  AlGaInP   Compound semiconductor
  Phosphoric acid (H3PO4)   Ni5P2
  Phosphine (PH3)   P-based metallic-glass alloys
Phosphor used in electron spectrum detectors/cameras   Photographic plate/photo-film for image recording in EMs
Photodiode array (PDA) for EELS  Photo-diode array (PDA) detectors
  Scintillator-photomultiplier (PM) system     
  Responding time of photon emission for electron irradiation   Energy/wavelength of X-ray "particles" (photons)
  Photonic technology    
  Photovoltaic devices    
Techniques of physical failure analysis (PFA) for ICs
Physical gate length
Physical and chemical constants, and unit conversion Picoammeter
Pi (π) bonds  
  Piezo-controlled energy-selecting slit in EELS device & GIF camera    Piezoelectric materials
  Piezoresponse atomic-force microscopy (PFM)   Piezo drive TEM/STEM holders
Pinhole lens for objective lens in SEMs Pirani gauge
Pipes used in EMs Poisson distribution (statistics)
Pivot point/rocking point/tilt & shift and their purities in TEM  
  Pixel resolution for recording CBED patterns   Pixel size in EM imaging
   A-, M-, R-, and C-planes of sapphire crystal   Cleavage plane of crystals
  Close packed planes and directions in crystals   Determination of Miller indices of planes
  Plane wave and interference pattern in electron holography   Excitation coefficient for plane wave incidence
  Diffraction of plane wave from multiple point sources    
  Plasma cleaning and plasma cleaners used for EM sample cleaning   Plasma cleaning of FIB prepared specimens
  Cleaning of hydrocarbon contamination by oxygen radicals in EMs    
  Applications of plasmon mode in EELS for nanostructures   Plasmon peaks from thick TEM samples
  Table of surface & bulk plasmon energy in EELS   Plasmon measurement in EELS
  Surface & bulk plasmon energy in EELS   Crystalline phase analysis by EELS plasmon
  Plasmon mean free path   Surface plasmons formed in thin specimen in EMs
  Maximum intensity of plasmon energy loss peak   Interband plasmon peak energy
  Plasmon signal affected by core-loss transitions in EELS   Number of valence electrons involved in plasmon scattering
  Analysis of surface plasmon resonances affected by energy resolution   Cross section of plasmon scattering
  Sample thickness determination using EELS/FETEM   Origin of change of plasmon energy
  Plastic deformation of metallic glasses
  Free volume change in amorphous materials induced by deformation
  EDS measurement of platinum (Pt)   EELS measurement of Platinum (Pt)
  Platinum Deposition by FIB   Amorphization of STO induced by e-beam Pt deposition
  FePt alloys   Platinum in ICs
  PtSi in ICs   Pt-based metallic-glass alloys
Plural/multiple scattering of electrons Pneumatic apertures
  Intermetallic compounds between 3d transition metal and pnicogen    
Point ROI on Gatan DigitalMicrograph  
  Number of lattice points (atoms) per unit cell   Point resolution in EMs
  Point-spread and its function    Lattice point/motif/basis
  Detection of point defects   Saturation of point defects
  Frenkel pair   Point defects created in FIB-EM sample preparation
  Atomic point defects   Electronic point defects
  Point defects (vacancy & interstitial) generated in Ar-milling    
  Holohedral point groups   Merohedral point groups
  Crystallographic point group notations/description   Determination of point group
  Determination of point groups of cubic systems   Point groups of crystals of biological macromolecules
  Polar point groups for ferroelectricity   Relationship between diffraction group and point group
Crystal structure
Point group
Triclinic 1 -1          
Monoclinic 2 m 2/m        
Orthorhombic 222 mm2 mmm        
Tetragonal 4 -4 4/m 422 4mm -42m 4/mmm
Trigonal 3 -3 32 3m -3m    
Hexagonal 6 -6 6/m 622 6mm Trigonal prismatic: -62m (or D3h) 6/mmm
Cubic 23 m-3 432 -43m m-3m    
Others -53m (Point group -53m)            
Polar net Polar point groups for ferroelectricity
  Angle between two planes/plane normals/poles measured by Wulff net    
  Nonuniform magnetic properties of pole-piece material   Objective polepiece in EMs
  Polepiece in magnetic prism of energy filters   Upper-/lower-objective polepiece in TEMs
  Pole piece gaps in EM systems   Effect of configuration of objective polepieces on STEM/TEM spatial resolution
Polycrystalline materials
  Electron diffraction patterns of polycrystalline materials   Polysilicon and diffused resistors
  Polycrystalline silicon in ICs   Polycrystalline silicon in solar cells
  Analytical investigations of polymer   TEM specimen grids for EDS analysis
  Polymer TEM sample preparation    
Polytype layer compounds  
Portable/desktop/tabletop SEM Popup windows and input dialogs of scripts for DM
Positive (cathode) & negative (anode) electrode materials for lithium batteries Position effects of TEM sample
  Sample location in TEM system   Location of EELS spectrometers in TEM system
  Position of EDS detector in EMs   Position and length of aberration correctors
Post-column energy filters & spectrometers Post-fields of objective lens
Potassium (K) 
  EDS measurement of potassium (K)   EELS of potassium (K)
  K2O·7Nb2O5 crystals   Seignette salt/Rochelle salt (NaKC4H4O6•4H2O)
  Potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching
  Periodic potential of crystals   Effect of periodic potential of crystal on STEM imaging
  Fourier coefficients of electrostatic potential    
  High power devices (of ICs)   Low standby power devices
  Power spectra of bright-field (BF) TEM micrographs   Power-law fit: a background fitting model
 Power supply
  Electron-gun high-voltage power supply in EMs   Power supplies for quadrupole/octupole aberration correctors
  Comparison between conventional electron diffraction and PED, and PED applications   Diffraction intensity in precession electron diffraction
  Kinematical effects of PED (precession electron diffraction)   Dynamical effects of PED (precession electron diffraction)
  Precession electron diffraction applications on nanostructures    
Precision of measurements Precipitation of transition metals
Precursor gases used in ion-beam/FIB/electron-beam induced depositions  
 Preferential phenomena
  Preferential electron-beam etching of grain boundaries   Preferential destruction of multilayers in FIB milling
Pre-field in EMs
  Objective pre-field lens    
Pressurized air for EM parts Prewitt edge filter (operator)
Prices of EM and related system and services  
  Energy dissipation of primary electrons (PE) in materials   Maximum ranges of primary electron beam in EMs
  Dependence of dopant contrast in Si on accelerating voltage of PE    
Primitive great circle in electron stereographic projection Primitive (P) lattices
Primitive unit cell determination by electron diffraction  
  Möllenstedt–Düker biprisms in optical and electron microscopes   EELS detector/spectrometers
  Probability of containing m atoms in a single atom column in crystal   Cross section (probabilities) of electron scattering (Introduction: Elastic & Inelastic)
Probes in mechanical, electron and ion systems
  Mechanical, electron and ion probe diameters    
Probe in EMs
  Probe-forming/objective aperture for STEM imaging   Lenses for fine probe/beam formation in EMs
  Probe-forming aperture in EMs   Electron-probe intensity distribution depending on aberrations
  Wave function of focused probe in STEM/SEM    
  Probe current in EMs   Probe current density
  Probe current measurement with Faraday cage in EMs   Measurement of electron probe current with EELS spectrometer
  Probe current affected by aberration corrections   Measurement of probe current
  Evaluation of probe size in EMs   Probe diameter in EMs
  Phase identification procedure by CBED   CBED Operation Procedure
Probe-forming Cs-corrector  
  EM image processing and deconvolution   TEM image formation process
Processes and mechanisms of secondary electron generation Profile analysis in integrated circuits (IC)  
Profile function on Gatan DigitalMicrograph Program and software examples for EM-related simulations
Projected potential model for TEM specimens Projection-diffraction symmetry
Publication number related to electron microscopes per year  
  Projector lenses & camera lengths in TEMs   Projector crossover 
  Projector lenses and image/diffraction distortion in EMs   Projector Lens Alignment (PLA)
  Back focal plane of projector lens in TEM    
  Semiconductor properties   Nonuniform magnetic properties of pole-piece material
Propane torch for EMs  
  Electron crystallography of proteins    
Proximity effect in lithography  
Pseudo-binary systems
  Pseudo-binary system Nb2O5/WO3    
Pseudo-weak phase-object approximation Pulsed thermally induced voltage alteration (TIVA)
  Comparison between common pumps used in EMs   Vacuum range/efficiency & pump combination
  Roughing pumps   Oil-diffusion Pump
  Silicon oils from diffusion pump   Sputter ion pump (SIP)
  Classification of vacuum pumps    
Pumps:  Exhaust pumps
  Rotary vacuum pumps   Diffusion pumps
  Turbo-molecular pump (TMP)    
  Rotary vacuum pumps   Scroll vacuum pumps
  Turbo-molecular pump (TMP)    
  Turbomolecular pump   Cryopump/cold traps for vacuum & cryogenic (adsorption) pumps
  Ion getter pumps   Cryopump/cold traps for vacuum & cryogenic (adsorption) pumps
Purchase/buy/sales/service of EM systems Pyroelectric materials
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