Electron microscopy
Sidewall Implantation in TEM Sample Preparation with FIB
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Sidewall in FIB milling are normally damaged with different thicknesses and this damage is known to be material dependent. Bright field (BF) and dark field (DF) images, in Figure 1165, show a sidewall damage in GaN due to FIB milling at 30 keV.

sidewall damage in GaN due to FIB milling

Figure 1165. TEM images showing a sidewall damage in GaN due to FIB milling at 30 keV: (a) bright field (BF) and (b) dark field (DF) images. The arrows approximately indicate the edges of the damaged regions.


Table 1165. Sidewall implantation damage in cross-sectional SEM and TEM sample preparations with FIB at 0° incident angle.
Ion beam voltage
Milled materials
Sidewall damage
Ga implantation level
30 keV AlGaN 20 nm   TEM sample [1]
Si 22 nm   [3]
~30-40 nm ~12% Si needles for Atom Probe [4]
10 keV Si 11 nm   TEM sample [2]
5 keV AlGaN 6-8 nm   [1]
Si 2.5 nm   [3]
2 keV AlGaN 4 nm   [1]
Si 0.5-1.5 nm   [3]











[1] David A. Cullen, and David J. Smith, Assessment of surface damage and sidewall implantation in AlGaN-based high electron mobility transistor devices caused during focused-ion-beam milling, Journal of Applied Physics 104, 094304 (2008).
[2] Jamison, R.B., Mardingly, A.J., Susnitzky, D.W. & Gronsky, R. Effects of ion species and energy of the amorphisation of Si duting FIB TEM sample preparation as determined by computational and experimental methods. Microsc. Microanal. 6, 526–527 (2000).
[3] Lucille A. Giannuzzi, Remco Geurts, and Jan Ringnalda 2 keV Ga+ FIB Milling for Reducing Amorphous Damage in Silicon, Microsc Microanal 11(Suppl 2), 2005, 828-829.
[4] K. Thompson, D. Lawrence, D.J. Larson, J.D. Olson, T.F. Kelly, B. Gorman, In situ site-specific specimen preparation for atom probe tomography., Ultramicroscopy. 107 (2007) 131–9. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2006.06.008.