Standardless EDS Quantification
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -
Electron microscopy
  Microanalysis | EM Book                                                           


The quantification of light elements and low energy X-ray lines is very challenging, especially for standardless quantification, because of:
         i) Large variations in absorption effects in the low energy range.
         ii) Variations in background calculation due to high absorption edges and high statistical error.