Lithium Ion Batteries
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In recent decades, lithium-ion batteries have become an important, integral part of the portable electronics industry, for instance, in the fields of laptops, cellular phones, and electric vehicles. Lithium metal was originally used as negative electrodes in batteries, but this led to safety and cycling issues. The “dissolution and deposition of lithium metal led to the formation of dendrites”, resulting in short circuits within the battery. Later, the lithium-metal anode had been replaced by the graphitic carbon anode and applied in the first Li-ion rechargeable battery released by Sony Corporation in 1991.

Batteries with lithium include disposable (primary) lithium batteries, rechargeable (secondary) lithium ion batteries, and rechargeable lithium titanate batteries. The main materials used for negative and positive electrodes in lithium batteries are listed in page1786. Table 1787a lists the lithium-ion battery components, their functions, and main materials.

Table 1787a. Lithium-ion battery components, their functions, and main materials.

Components Functions Materials Manufactory, country
Positive (cathode) electrode materials Emit lithium-ion to anode during charging; receive lithium-ion during discharging page1786 Japan, South Korea
Negative (anode) electrode materials Receive lithium-ion from anode during charging; emit lithium-ion during discharging page1786 Japan, South Korea
Electrolyte Pass lithium-ions between cathode and anode Lithium salts and organic solvents Japan, China, European Union
Separator Prevent short circuit between cathode and anode; pass lithium ions through pores in separator Micro-porous membranes Japan, South Korea, USA, China
Electrode foils     Japan, South Korea, China, European Union

Can & cover

    South Korea, Japan, China
Vent     Japan, USA, South Korea

Electronic components

    Japan, South Korea, European Union, USA, China
Electrical components     Japan, South Korea, European Union, USA, China
Mechanical components     Japan, South Korea, European Union, USA, China
Battery cells     Japan, South Korea, China, European Union, USA

Table 1787b. General properties of Lithium-ion batteries.

Specific energy 100 - 265 W·h/kg
Energy density 250 - 730 W·h/L
Power density 250 - 1,800 W/kg
Charging/discharging efficiency 80 - 90%
Energy/consumer-price 0.5 - 2.5 W·h/US$
Self-discharge rate (per month) 8% at 21 °C
15% at 40 °C
31% at 60 °C
Cycle durability 400 - 3,500 cycles
Battery characteristics Small size, light weight
Application Consumer electronics

Table 1787c. Global lithium-ion battery market share (in 2009) by country and by manufactory.

Manufactory Market share (%) Country Market share (%) Employee
Sanyo 23% Japan 48% 35,700
Sony 14%
Panasonic 6.0%
Hitachi Maxell 5.3%
Toshiba <1%
Mitsubishi Chemistry <1%
Samsung 15% South Korea 22% 17,600
LG Chem 7.4%
BYD 8.3% China 18.7% 33,200
BAK 6.6%
ATL 3.8%
A123 Systems 1% USA 1% 1,100
Greatbatch <1%  
Valence Technology <1%  
3M <1%  
Others 9.6% Others 9.6%  

Table 1787d. Top academic organizations that published research papers on lithium-ion batteries in 2009.

Organization Paper number Country Paper number
AIST (National Institute of Advanced
Industrial Science And Technology)
368 Japan


Kyoto University 280
Tokyo Institute of Technology 255
Kyusyu University 169
Saga University 168
GS Yuasa 134
Tokyo University of Science 133
Iwate University 130
Tohoku University 113
The Chinese Academy of Sciences 267 China


Fudan University 158
Tsinghua University 131
Wuhan University 119
Argonne National Laboratory 241 USA


University of California 139
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 134
Massachusetts Institute of
Hanyang University 210 Korea


Seoul National University 157
KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of
Science And Technology)
KIST (Korea Institute of Science And
CNRS 148 France


Université De Picardie Jules Verne 142
Université Pierre Et Marie Curie 117
Dalhousie University 152 Canada 152
Cordoba University 141 Spain 141
Università Degli Studi Di Roma 133 Italy  
National University of Singapore 131 Singapore 131
University of Wollongong 121 Australia 121
Bar-Ilan University 118 Israel 118