Lens Defects
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Like glass lenses in optical microscopes (EMs), all electromagnetic lenses suffer from defects such as astigmatism, chromatic and spherical aberrations, coma, and barrel or pincushion distortion. The first three are related to the objective lens. On the other hand, from the operator's standpoint those three are the most important because of their influence on the resolution of the electron microscopes (EMs).




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