- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Titanium silicides are materils used in different industrial fields due to their excellent properties:
        i) Titanium disilicide (TiSi2) is a refractory metal silicide commonly applied as interconnects in ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) circuits and as gate electrodes in metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) transistors [6 - 7] because of its low resistivity, thermal stability and excellent electrical contact properties with silicon [1 - 3].
        ii) Titanium silicides have highly suitable properties as a mask for silicon bulk micro-machining because it exhibits very low etch rates in potassium hydroxide (used for anisotropic etching of silicon) [8].
        iii) Titanium silicide (Ti5Si3) is a material suitable for high temperature applications [4, 5]. It has combined properties of a high melting point (2403 K), a low density (4.32 g/cm3), high hardness (11.3 GPa), and a relatively high Young’s modulus (225 GPa) [4].
        iv) Titanium alloys are used in many automotive and aerospace applications because of their attractive properties, such as high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance.

The chemical reaction for TiSi2 film growth is given by,

          chemical reaction for WSi2 film growth --------------- [2008]

Table 2008. Metallization selections in ICs.
Gates, interconnection, and
Polysilicon, refractory metal silicides (e.g. MoSix, TaSix, WSix, and TiSix), nitrides,aluminum, copper, and/or refractory metals.
Diffusion barrier layer
Ti, TiN, Ta, TaN, Ti-W alloy, and/or silicides
Top level
Aluminum, and/or copper
Metallization on silicon
Silicides, tungsten, aluminum, and/or copper

Note that titanium silicidation generates less silicon vacancies in the silicon substrate than by cobalt silicidation. [9]




[1] BhaskaranM, Sriram S, Mitchell D R G and Holland A S 2008 Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 035021.
[2] S. L. Zhang and M. Östling, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 28, 1 (2003).
[3] Zhang S-L and östling M 2003 Metal silicides in CMOS technology: past, present, and future trends Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 28 1–129.
[4] Meschter PJ, Schwartz DS. Silicide-matrix materials for hightemperature applications. J Organomet Chem 1989;52–5.
[5] Murarka SP, Fraser DB. Thin film interaction between titanium and polycrystalline silicon. J Appl Phys 1980;51(1):342–9.
[6] A.A. Bos, N.S. Parekh, A.G.M. Jonkers, Thin Solid Films 197 (1991) 169.
[7]  Murarka S P 1995 Silicide thin films and their applications in microelectronics Intermetallics 3 173–86.
[8] Fruhauf J 2005 Shape and Functional Elements of the Bulk Silicon Microtechnique: A Manual of Wet-Etched Silicon Structures (Berlin: Springer) p 11.
[9] S. B. Herner, K. S. Jones, H.-J. Gossmann, J. M. Poate, and H. S. Luftman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1687 (1996).


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