Generation of defects in Crystals
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


The failure of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes takes place by the generation of defects in the active region during device operation. These defects are mainly dark line defects and dark patches. It was observed under optical microscopes and cathodoluminescence imaging [1-3] that these defects normally start small and grow during device operation until the whole surface of the emitting region is dark and the device fails.






[1] G.M. Haugen, S. Guha, H. Cheng, J.M. DePuydt, M.A. Haase, G.E. Hofler, J. Qiu and B.J. Wu, App[. Phys. Lett. 66, 358
[2] 5. S. Guha, H. Cheng, M.A. Hasse, J.M. DePuydt, J. Qiu, B.J. Wu and G.E. Hofler, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 801 (1994).
[3] 6. M. Hovinen, J. Ding, A.V. Nurmikko, G.C. Hua, D.C. Grillo, Li He, J. Han and R.L. Gunshor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2013 (1995).




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