This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.

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The L family of characteristic Xrays observed by EDS involves L_{α}(1), L_{β1}(0.7), L_{β2}(0.2), L_{β3}(0.08), L_{β4}(0.05), L_{γ1}(0.08), L_{γ3}(0.03), L_{λ}(0.04), and L_{η}(0.01). Different from the Kfamily, the numbers in the parentheses present approximate relative intensities, since these intensities vary with the overvoltage and with the element in question .
If neither a proper database nor standards are available, the k_{AB} factors can be theoretically calculated,
 [2519]
where,
Q_{A} and Q_{B}  The ionization crosssections for the Xrays of elements A and B, respectively,
w_{A} and w_{B}  The fluorescence yields for elements A and B, respectively,
a_{A} and a_{B}  The
relative transition probabilities for elements A and B, respectively,
A_{A} and A_{B}  The atomic weights for elements A and B, respectively,
ε_{A} and ε_{B}  The detection efficiencies of the
EDS detector for the Xrays from elements A and B, respectively.
In Equation 2519, it is most difficult to accurately calculate Q and ε. The extraction of the k_{AB} values for K lines above 1.5 eV in energy is in error of ~10 to 15% mainly due to the inaccurate estimation of Q. For the same reason, it is not recommended to calculate the k_{AB} values for light elements Z < 11 or for L lines.
