Techniques for Dopant Profiling in Semiconductors
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Various techniques can be used to analyze the dopants in semiconductors:
         i) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) [1, 2],
         ii) Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) [3],
         iii) Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) [4],
         iv) Off-axis electron holography [5],
         v) Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

Except SIMS, the other techniques are applicable for the nanoscale dimensions of state-of-the-art semiconductor devices. Furthermore, one key to the success of dopant analysis in nanometer-scale is the specimen preparation to expose the region of interest, for instance, using focused ion beam (FIB) milling.












[1] Arrays of periodic submicron conductive links in Si covered by SiO2 formed by polarized laser irradiation, Yougui Liao and Michel Meunier (2006) Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 86.
[2] P. Kazemian, A. C. Twitchett, C. J. Humphreys, and C. Rodenburg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 212110 (2006).
[3] P. Eyben, D. Alvarez, M. Jurczak, R. Rooyackers, A. De Keersgieter, E. Augendre, and W. Vandervorst, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 364 (2004).
[4] C. C. Williams, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 29, 471 (1999).
[5] M. R. McCartney and D. J. Smith, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 729 (2007).



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