EM Analysis of Biological Materials
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


The main biological elements are C (carbon), O (oxygen), H (hydrogen), N (nitrogen), S (sulfur), and P (phosphorus), which have small atomic number and weak electron scattering potential. In most EM analyses, heavy metals, such as Os (osmium), Pb (lead), and U (uranium), are used to stain the biological materials because those metallic elements have high atomic number and higher electron scattering potential.

For biological materials, due to the relatively low acceleration voltage of the cryo-SEM (e.g. 30 kV) in comparison with a cryo-TEM (normally 80–300 kV), the SEM contrast between the vitreous ice and the cells is still very strong even though without chemical staining.




The book author (Yougui Liao) welcomes your comments, suggestions, and corrections, please click here for submission. If you let book author know once you have cited this book, the brief information of your publication will appear on the “Times Cited” page.