This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.

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Starting from the twobeam kinematic diffraction theory, when the TEM sample thickness is very small, the extension (H) of the reflection in reciprocal space is very large. Therefore, Q is much smaller than πH so that the twobeam dynamical scattering theory can be approximated by twobeam kinematic diffraction theory, which suggests the intensity of an <hkl> diffracted beam given by,
 [2713a]
 [2713a]
where,
I_{0}  The intensity of the incident electron beam,
S  The illuminating area by the incident electron beam,
Φ_{hkl}  Fourier coefficients of an electrostatic potential,
F_{hkl}  The structure factors,
A  The thickness of the crystal in the TEM specimen,
H  The extension of
the reflection in reciprocal space,
σ  The interaction constant between the incident electrons and specimen,
Θ  The half of the angle between the transmitted and scattered electron beams,
ξ_{hkl}  The extinction distance.
In the kinematic theory, the integrated reflection coefficient is given by,
 [2713c]
where,
L  The Lorentz factor in unit of
length.
