Void Formation by Nabarro–Herring Creep
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


According to Nabarro–Herring creep model, [1] the region under tensile stress takes less energy to create vacancies than that under compressive stress. Therefore, the region at the maximum tensile stress would be the favorite location for collecting the vacancies and thus for creating voids to release the high tensile stress. In silicidation in ICs, the generation of voids can reduce the density of the Si (silicon) vacancies and the tensile stress simultaneously, resulting in a decrease of the internal energy of the system.




[1] 15K.-N. Tu, J. W. Mayer, and L. C. Feldman, Electronic Thin Film Science for Electrical Engineers and Materials Scientists (Macmillan, New York, 1992), p. 90.




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