In Situ SEM Observation of Electromigration
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


In situ SEM has been employed to investigate electromigration behavior. For instance, Vairagar et al. [1] used this technique to study the electromigration-induced failure in the upper and lower layers in dual-damascene Cu test structures. Their observations revealed electromigration-induced void movement along the Cu/dielectric cap interface and concluded that Cu/Si3N4 interface acted as the dominant electromigration path. They also observed that the void nucleation occurred in the Cu/Si3N4 interface at locations which were far from the cathode, and void movement along the Cu/Si3N4 interface in opposite direction of electron flow eventually caused void agglomeration at the via in the cathode end.





[1] A. V. Vairagar, S. G. Mhaisalkar, Ahila Krishnamoorthy, K. N. Tu, A. M. Gusak, Moritz Andreas Meyer, and Ehrenfried Zschech, In situ observation of electromigration-induced void migration in dual-damascene Cu interconnect structures, Applied Physics Letters, 85(13), 2502 (2004).




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