This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.

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The times to electromigrationinduced failures are lognormally distributed as given by, [1]
 [2887a]
where,
σ  The standard deviation of ln(t),
t  The time to electromigrationinduced failure,
t_{50}  The median time to failure (MTTF).
MTTF is related to the number, type, and distribution of structural defects [2].
The failure distribution function for the lines, G_{sp}(t), can be given by [3],
 [2887b]
where,
N_{p}  The number (=w/d) of parallel units,
N_{s}  The number of units which is approximately equal to the line length divided by the grain size, l/d.
 [2887c]
f(z) is given by Equation 2887a.
[1] LaCombe, D.J. and Parks, E.L., The distribution of electromigration failures, 24th Annual Proceedings Reliability Physics (1986) 16 DOI: 10.1109/IRPS.1986.362103.
[2] Attardo, MJ; Rosenber.R , Electromigration Damage in Aluminum Film Conductors, Journal of Applied Physics, 41(6) 2381. DOI: 10.1063/1.1659233.
[3] Cho, J. and Thompson, C. V., Grain size dependence of electromigrationinduced failures in narrow interconnects, 54(25), 2577 (1989).
