Median Time to Failure (MTTF) to Electromigration
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Different from mean time to failure (MTTF), median time to failure (t50) is defined to occur when 50% devices have failed so that half of the failures happen prior to time t50 and remaining half after t50. t50 mostly arises in the statistical and mathematical analysis of failure distributions. MTTF is related to the number, type, and distribution of structural defects [1].






[1] Attardo, MJ; Rosenber.R , Electromigration Damage in Aluminum Film Conductors, Journal of Applied Physics,  41(6)  2381.  DOI: 10.1063/1.1659233.



The book author (Yougui Liao) welcomes your comments, suggestions, and corrections, please click here for submission. You can click How to Cite This Book to cite this book. If you let book author know once you have cited this book, the brief information of your publication will appear on the “Times Cited” page.

Copyright (C) 2006 GlobalSino, All Rights Reserved