Electron microscopy
History of In Situ/Environmental TEM/STEM Observations
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Table 3277. History of In Situ/environmental TEM/STEM observations.

Hansen/Haldor Topsoe With Phillips CM 200 FEG, in resolution of 0.23 nm, under pressure of 4 Torr
H2/N2, and at temperature of /550 °C
Sharma et al. With Phillips 400T, in resolution of 0.42 nm, under pressure of 3 Torr of NH3 [5]
Yao, Spindler, Gatan Inc. With Phillips CM 30, in resolution of 0.34 nm, under pressure of 20 Torr [4]
Doole, Parkinson, Hutchinson With JEOL 4000, in resolution of 0.31 nm, under pressure of 4.2 Torr of H2, and at temperature of 670 °C [6]
  Moved very slow because: i) Difficulties on instrumentation; ii) Difficulties on resolution; iii) Lack of funding  
Early to mid 1970
D. L. Allison in USA Physical sciences  
Early 1960
H. G. Heide in Germany Biological science (gas controlled environment)  
Late 1950 to early 1960
Stoyanova, I. G., in Russia Biological sciences (gas and wet cell), first to examine wet biological materials in TEM  
Late 1950
T Ito in Japan Physical sciences/Instrumentation (gas interaction)  
Abrams and McBain Constructed the first enclosed wet cell  
L. Marton

In-Situ TEM/STEM method with a windowed cell: the sample is sandwiched between two electron transparent thin films in order to examine biological materials in hydrated state (e.g. amorphous carbon films)





[1] L. Marton, Nature 133, 911 (1935).
[2] L. Hansen and J. B. Wagner, Proc. 12th European Congress on Electron Microscopy, Vol. II, (2000) 537–538.
[3] ThomasW. Hansen, Jacob B.Wagner, Poul L. Hansen, Seren Dahl, Haldor Topsoe, Claus J. H. Jacobson, Science, 294 (2001) 1508–1510.
[4] Nan Yao, Gerard E. Spinnler, Richard A. Kemp, Don C. Guthrie, R. Dwight Cates and C. Mark Bolinger, Proc. 49th Annual; meeting of Microsc. Soc. Am. San Francisco Press (1991) 1028.
[5] Renu Sharma, K. Weiss, M. McKelvy and W. Glaunsinger, Proc. 52nd Ann. Meet. Microscopy Society of America, (1994) 494–495P.
[6] R. C. Doole, G.M. Parkinson, J. L. Hutchison, M. J. Goringe and P. J. F. Harris JEOL News 30E, (1992) 30.



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