Electron microscopy
Fuel Cells
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -
Microanalysis | EM Book                                                                                   https://www.globalsino.com/EM/        

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Fuel cells are devices which are used to convert chemical energy to electrical energy. As shown in Figure 3305, they normally are composed of anode, anode catalyst, cathode, cathode catalyst, gas diffusion layer, electrolyte, a load to complete the circuit, continuous feed of fuel, and continuous feed of air or oxygen. Fuel cells are generally named by the electrolytes in the cells as listed in Table 3305.

Schematic illustration of a fuel cell converting chemical energy to electrical energy

Figure 3305. Schematic illustration of a fuel cell converting chemical energy to electrical energy.

Table 3305. Comparison of most common fuel cells.

Fuel Cell
Anode Gas
Cathode Gas
Solid Oxide (SOFC)
Ceramic Oxide
Hydrogen, methane
Atmospheric oxygen
800–1000 °C
(1500–1800 °F)
45–60 %
Proton Exchange Membrane(PEM)
Solid polymer membrane
Pure or atmospheric oxygen
75 °C (180 °F)
35–60 %
Alkaline (AFC)
Potassium hydroxide
Pure oxygen
Below 80 °C
50–70 %
Direct Methanol
Solid polymer membrane
Methanol solution in water
Atmospheric oxygen
75 °C (180 °F)
35–40 %
Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
Phosphoric acid
Atmospheric oxygen
210°C (400 °F)
35–50 %
Molten Carbonate
Hydrogen, methane
Atmospheric oxygen
650 °C (1200 °F)
40–55 %




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