Electron microscopy
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)
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This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are one type of fuel cells and are electrochemical reactors that convert chemical energy of fuel gas into electrical energy with minimal environmental hazards [1,2].

The major challenges for commercialization of SOFCs are as follows:
        i) High manufacturing costs.
        ii) Reduced cell performance at low operating temperature.

Table 3311 lists the major properties of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

Table 3311. Major properties of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

Anode Gas
Cathode Gas
Solid Oxide (SOFC)
Ceramic Oxide
Hydrogen, methane
Atmospheric oxygen
800–1000 °C
(1500–1800 °F)
45–60 %

Except for Ni/YSZ as the most common anode material in SOFCs, gadolinium doped ceria oxide (GDC), doped SrTiO3 [3,4], and Cu-CeO-YSZ [5] are also used. Nonetheless, some of them have disadvantages of complicated fabrication processes, low conductivity or poor electrochemical catalyst activity.




[1] T. Komatsu, K. Watanabe, M. Arakawa, H. Arai., Journal of Power Sources, 2009. 193(2): p. 585-588.
[2] K. Kevin, Q. Nguyen, C. S. Singhal, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications. Cell Stack and Designs, Elsevier Ltd., Oxford 2003, pp. 197–228.
[3] J. Canales-Vazquez, S.W Tao, J.T.S Irvine, Solid State Ionics, 2003. 159(1–2): p. 159-165.
[4] S. Hui, A. Petric, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 2002. 149(1): p. J1-J10.
[5] S. Park, J.M. Vohs, R.J. Gorte, Nature, 2000. 404(6775): p. 265-267.

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