Electron microscopy
Electric Displacement
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -
Microanalysis | EM Book                                                                                   https://www.globalsino.com/EM/        

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


The stored electric energy per unit area in a dielectric can be physically quantified by electric displacement D. D is given by,

          D= ε0E +P = εε0E

          E -- The electric field.
          ε -- The relative permittivity of a material.
          ε0 -- The permittivity of the vacuum.
          P -- The dielectric polarization.

A crystal possesses a spontaneous polarization if the centers of the positive and negative charges in the crystal structure do not coincide naturally.



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