This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.
The clustering of vacancies into dislocation loops may occur when point defects become supersaturated. The saturation of point defects can be induced by many ways such as high-energy-particle irradiation, plastic deformation, or thermal quenching [1 - 6].
For PCM (phase change memory) materials, typical quenching rates to glass states are 109-1010 °C/s. By applying an external electrical field, the crystallization time can be reduced to several hundreds of picoseconds .
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