Thermal Quenching
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
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This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


The clustering of vacancies into dislocation loops may occur when point defects become supersaturated. The saturation of point defects can be induced by many ways such as high-energy-particle irradiation, plastic deformation, or thermal quenching [1 - 6].

For PCM (phase change memory) materials, typical quenching rates to glass states are 109-1010 °C/s. By applying an external electrical field, the crystallization time can be reduced to several hundreds of picoseconds [7].





[1] Yoo, M. H. & Stiegler, J. O. Point defect interactions and growth of dislocation loops. J. Nucl. Mater. 69–70, 813–815 (1978).
[2] Abromeit, C. & Wollenberger, H. Insight into cascade processes arising from studies of cascade collapse. Mater. Sci. Forum 15–18, 1003–1022 (1987).
[3] Davis, T. L. & Hirth, J. P. Nucleation rate of vacancy clusters in crystals. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2112–2116 (1966).
[4] Davis, T. L. Nucleation rate of vacancy clusters in aluminum. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3756–3760 (1967).
[5] Kino, T. & Koehler, J. S. Vacancies and divacancies in quenched gold. Phys. Rev. 162, 632–648 (1967).
[6] Bauerle, J. E. & Koehler, J. S. Quenched-in lattice defects in Gold. Phys. Rev. 107, 1493–1499 (1957).
[7] Loke D, Lee TH, Wang WJ, Shi LP, Zhao R, Yeo YC, et al. Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory. Science 2012, 336(6088): 1566-1569.




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