Orthorhombic Lattices
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -

https://www.globalsino.com/EM/

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.

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Table 3552a and Figure 3552 show the orthorhombic crystal systems and the schematic illustrations of the orthorhombic lattices, respectively. Furthermore, Table 3552c shows the cell edges and angles of orthorhombic crystals.

Table 3552a. Orthorhombic crystal systems.

Crystal
family
Crystal
system
Required
symmetries
of point group
Point
group
Space
group
Bravais
lattices
Lattice
system

Orthorhombic

3 two-fold axes of rotation or 1 two-fold axis of rotation and two mirror planes 3 59 4
Orthorhombic

Figure 3552. Schematic illustrations of the Bravais lattices of orthorhombic crystals.

Table 3552b. Relationship between Laue classes and point groups.

System Essential symmetry  Lattice symmetry  Laue class (Diffraction symmetry) Point Groups (Hermann–Mauguin notation)
Triclinic None 1, -1
Monoclinic 2/m 2/m 2, m, 2/m
Orthorhombic 222 or 2mm
mmm
mmm 222, mm2, mmm
Tetragonal 4/mmm
4/m
4, -4, 4/m
4/mmm 422, -42m, 4mm, 4/mmm
Trigonal 3 3, -3
-3m1 321, 3m1, -3m1
-31m 312, 31m, -31m
Hexagonal 6/mmm
6/m 6, -6, 6/m
6/mmm 622, -62m, 6mm, 6/mmm
Cubic 23 m3m
m-3 23, m-3
m-3m 432, -43m, m-3m

For orthorhombic structures, the lattice spacing (d-spacing) can be given by, (You can download the excel file for your own calculations)

--------------------------------- [3552]
where,
a, b and c -- The lattice constants.
h, k, and l -- The Miller indices.

Table 3554c. Centrosymmetric, non-centrosymmetric, and chiral space groups for orthorhombic lattices.

 Crystal system Laue group Point group Space group Orthorhombic mmm 222 P222, P2221, P21212, P212121, C222, C2221, I222, I212121, F222 mm2 Pmm2, Pmc21, Pcc2, Pma2, Pca21, Pnc2, Pmn21, Pba2, Pna21, Pnn2, Cmm2, Cmc21, Ccc2, Amm2, Abm2, Ama2, Aba2, Imm2, Iba2, Ima2, Fmm2, Fdd2 mmm Pmmm, Pnnn, Pccm, Pban, Pmma, Pnna, Pmna, Pcca, Pbam, Pccn, Pbcm, Pnnm, Pmmn, Pbcn, Pbca, Pnma, Cmcm, Cmca, Cmmm, Cccm, Cmma, Ccca, Immm, Ibam, Ibca, Imma, Fmmm, Fddd Red: chiral; green: non-centrosymmetric; and yellow: centrosymmetric.

Table 3552c. Other characteristics of orthorhombic structures.

Contents
Page
Angles in unit cells page3555
Volume of unit cells page3033
Bravais lattices page4546
Relationship between three-dimensional crystal families, crystal systems, space group, point group, lattice systems and symmetries page4549

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