Quadrupole/Octupole used for Coupling
between Different Lenses in EMs
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Quadrupole/octupole can be used for coupling between different lenses in EMs. For instance, the QOCM highlighted in orange in Figure 3603 is used for optimized coupling of inelastically scattered electrons into the electron energy loss spectrometer. Note that different from most commercial TEM systems (see schematic diagram of TEM systems), this TEM system without phosphor screen has the incident electrons emitted from the bottom of the systems and the detectors on the top.

schematic cross-section of the column.

【*】 Detectors: HAADF, BF, EELS

【*】 QOCM: Quadrupole/octupole module called quadrupole–
coupling module

【*】 Four round projector lenses: PL1, PL2, PL3, and PL4.

【*】 OL: Objective lens

【*】 QLM: Quadrupole lens module

【*】 C3/C5 corrector: quadrupole–octupole C3/C5 corrector

【*】 Three round condenser lenses: CL1, CL2, and CL3

【*】 CFEG: Cold field emission gun

Figure 3603. (a) The TEM column and (b) Schematic cross-section of the column. [1]



[1] Krivanek OL, Corbin GJ, Dellby N, Elston BF, Keyse RJ, Murfitt MF, Own CS, Szilagyi ZS, Woodruff JW. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era, Ultramicroscopy, 108 (2008) 179–195.




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