Index of Refraction of Electron Lenses
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


The physical origin for the formation of spherical aberration in the actual magnetic lenses is due to the fact that the electromagnetic potentials satisfy Laplace’s equation in the domain of the electron trajectories. Therefore, the spatial distribution of the index of refraction of electron lenses cannot be formed arbitrarily. Since the potential adopts an extremum at the lenses’ boundaries, the outer (marginal) zones of rotationally symmetric electron lenses always focus the rays more strongly than the inner (paraxial) zones, causing the spherical aberration.

On the other hand, the influence of diffraction on the quantum wave of charged particle in electron and ion microscopes is negligibly small because the refraction index does not change significantly over the distance of several wavelength.



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