Magnetic Multipole Lenses
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Macroscopic fields in EMs are produced by macroscopic elements, including the solenoids, magnetic multipoles or by the voltages applied to conducting devices, for example cylinders or apertures.

Multipoles of higher-order than 3 do not produce 3rd-order spherical aberrations at all and elements of lower order than 2 disturb the spherically symmetric paraxial optics.



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