Dependence of Radiation Damage on
Accelerating Voltage of Electrons
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


In order to avoid radiation damage caused by atom displacements in electron microscopes (EMs), the energy (accelerating voltage) of the incident electrons must be smaller than the threshold energy for knock-on processes, which lies in the range between 100 and 300 keV for most solid materials.




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