Image Series Reconstructions &
TEM Spatial Resolution Improvement
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Based on processing a series of TEM images taken at either different defoci or illumination tilts, image series reconstructions can compensate for the oscillations in the phase contrast transfer function (PCTF). The different illumination defoci or tilts have the images with different aberrations in the series and each image have frequencies where the PCTF is zero, therefore, we can have all spatial frequencies included in the reconstruction. One of the main advantages of the image-series-reconstructions technique is that it can be employed on any TEM systems and results in the complex object wave function which, unlike a normal image, gives detailed information of both the amplitude and the phase of the electron wave affected by the TEM specimen. [1] The drawback of this technique is that different from aberration correction method it is an indirect method and requires extensive post-processing of the image series.




[1] D. J. Smith, “Development of aberration corrected electron microscopy,” Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol. 14, pp. 2–15, 2008.




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