SEM Observation of Structures underneath Insulators
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



In the integrated circuits (ICs) today, the insulating layers consisting of SiO2 and/or Si3N4 are often placed between conductive or semiconductive layers of the circuits for insulation or on the top of circuits for passivation and/or protection. Therefore, it is important to observe the deep structural information of the devices covered by the insulating thin films. These structures can be investigated by conventional voltage contrast after removing the passivation layer or by using a high-energy penetrating e-beam, and/or by the capacitive coupling voltage contrast (CCVC).





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