Negative Charging Case of Passive Voltage Contrast (PVC) in SEM
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



When the observing structure is electrically isolated, it can be charged during electron irradiation. Passive voltage contrast (PVC) method in FIBs and SEMs is widely used for failure analysis of IC chips. In SEMs the charging can be positive or negative depending on the primary beam current, accelerating voltage, structure and composition of the sample, crystalline orientation, magnification, etc.  When the charging process reaches an equilibrium state, the surface potential will maintain constant. In the case of negative charging, the negative surface potential slightly retards the incident primary electrons, while it increases the SE yield.



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