Minimization of Atom Knock-on in EMs
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers. You can click How to Cite This Book to cite this book. Please let Dr. Liao know once you have cited this book so that the brief information of your publication can appear on the “Times Cited” page. This appearance can also help advertise your publication.



A low accelerating voltage, e.g. 80 keV in TEM and 100 keV in STEM, can be used to minimize knock-on damage for some sensitive materials, e.g. graphene monolayer. In these microscopes, Cs (spherical aberration) corrector can be employed to increase their spatial resolution to, e.g. 1 Å.



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