Thin TEM Sample to Avoid Multiple/Plural Scattering
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



Most TEM specimens are so thick that plural scattering, such as elastic - inelastic, inelastic - inelastic, and elastic - elastic, is usually significant. The plural scattering is generally unwanted since it distorts the shape of the energy-loss spectrum. To avoid electron plural (multiple) scattering with matter, the TEM sample should be very thin (t ≤ λel ≤ λin). Here, λel and λin are mean free paths of elastic and inelastic scattering. For instance, a 4 nm thickness (t) of pure Ti film would not cause significant plural scattering.



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