Constant-Loss Approximation on Process of
Secondary Electron Generation
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



Constant-loss approximation [1 – 3] suggested that the energy dissipation of primary electrons (PE) within the material is approximately constant, the number of primary electrons would decrease linearly to a depth R. The number of SEs produced per unit path length would be a constant, given by,

           Constant-Loss Approximation on Process of Secondary Electron Generation ----------------- [4472]

where ξ -- Energy required to excite one SE inside the solid
R -- Maximum range of the PE.


[1] Joy DC (1987) J Microsc 147(1):51
[2] Dionne GF (1973) J Appl Phys 44(12):5361
[3] Lye RG, Dekker AJ (1957) Phys Rev 107(4):977



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