Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



Since the phenomenon of secondary electron (SE) emission was discovered at the beginning of 20th century and after the birth of the TEM in 1930s, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been a growing field [1]. The SEMs collect the SEs or BSEs for imaging and have advantages of relatively simple specimen preparation and relatively high resolution available for larger specimens. In 1938, a German scientist, von Ardenne, suggested that the principles underlying the SEM methods. Knoll proposed the basic principle of the SEM system in 1935 and Zworykin et al. in the RCA laboratory developed a SEM at a spatial resolution of about 50 nm in 1942.

The accelerating voltages of SEM systems has been extended from ~20 keV to ~0.1 – 200 keV. Schematic Diagram of SEM Systems is shown somewhere else.

[1] A.J. Dekker, in: Solid State Physics (Prentice-Hall, 1957) chap. 17.




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