Distribution of Secondary Electrons
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -



This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



In bulk materials, SEs are emitted in the backward direction as shown in Figure 4819, while SEs are emitted in both backward and forward directions. One of the reasons why the SEM detectors are inserted above the sample stage is because SEM systems are mostly used for observing bulk materials.

Forward and backward secondary electrons

Figure 4819. Secondary electron emission: (a) backward-SEs, (b) forward-SEs





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