Contrast Dependence on Angle of Detection in SEM
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The initial SE (secondary electrons) angular-distribution as SEs leave the emitting surface is predicted to follow a cosine distribution [1]
                       SE (secondary electrons) angular-distribution ----------------------------------------------- [4838]
Here, δ0 is the SE yield at α = 0°. Figure 4838 shows the SE angular-distribution for our polycrystalline gold sample at electron beam energy of 1.5 keV.

SE (secondary electrons) angular-distribution

Figure 4838. SE angle-resolved yield data for polycrystalline Au with electron beam energy of 1.5 keV.
The curve fits the data using the cosine distribution of Equation [4838]. [2]

[1] J. H. L. Jonker, The angular-distribution of the secondary electrons of nickel, Philips Res. Rep., 6, 372-387,1951.
[2] N. Nickles, R. E. Davies and J. R. Dennison, Applications of Secondary Electron Energy- and Angular-Distributions to Spacecraft Charging, 6th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference, AFRL-VS-TR-20001578, 1 September 2000.




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