Electron microscopy
Silicide Properties
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Table 989. Silicide properties.

Properties Details
Mechanical properties of silicides Room Temp. Fracture Toughness MPa. m1/2
Optical properties of silicides Optical reflectivity (%) 
Thermal properties of silicides

Thermal expansion (ppm/°C)
Melting point (°C)
Thermal stability temperature: stable on Si up to (°C)
Stable on Al up to (°C)
Self-diffusion coefficient [cm2/s]
Diffusion coefficient in Si [cm2/s]
Dominant diffusing species
Temperature of zero lattice mismatch with Si
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)
Enthalpy of formation (kJ/mol)
Eutectic temperature (°C)

Electrical properties of silicides Resistivity (µΩ-cm)
Sheet resistance for a 200-nm thick film (Ω/□)
Direct band gap (eV)
(Schottky) barrier height to n-Si (eV)
Indirect band gap (eV)
Barrier height on n-Si (mV)
Electromigration problems
Structures of silicides nm of Si consumed per nm of metal
nm of resulting silicide per nm of metal
Si consumption (nm Si/nm Silicide)
Impurity precipitates
Density gm/cm3
Silicides suitable for epitaxial growth on silicon
Space group
Lattice constant (nm)
Lattice mismatch with Si
Atomic/unit volume
Strain induced
Chemical properties of silicides Sintering/formation/growth temperature (°C)
Bonding energy (eV)
Lowest temperature at which aluminum interacts with silicide (°C)
Maximum solubility of metal on Si [cm-3]
Selective etchant
Chemical resistance (etchability)
Molecular weight
Oxidation rate (oxidation stability)
Etch rate in (10:1) BHF (Å/min)
Dry etching in plasma
Dry etching in RSE
Stability of the metal oxide
Oxidation stability of silicide on silicon
Oxidation stability of silicide on oxide