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Newton's method can take fewer iterations than gradient descent to converge to a minimum under certain conditions. The advantages of Newton's method over gradient descent in terms of iteration count typically arise in the following situations:

Quadratic Convex Functions: Newton's method converges in a single step for quadratic convex functions because it can find the minimum of such functions directly. Gradient descent, on the other hand, may take many steps to converge in such cases.

WellBehaved and Smooth Objective Functions: Newton's method is more effective when the objective function is smooth and wellbehaved. It leverages secondorder information (Hessian matrix) to approximate the function locally as a quadratic, which can lead to rapid convergence.
However, there are important considerations when using Newton's method:

Computational Cost per Iteration: Newton's method requires computing and inverting the Hessian matrix, which can be computationally expensive, especially for highdimensional problems. In contrast, gradient descent only involves computing the gradient. Therefore, even though Newton's method may take fewer iterations, each iteration can be much more computationally intensive.

Choice of Initial Guess: Newton's method can be sensitive to the choice of the initial guess. If the initial guess is far from the optimal solution, it may converge slowly or even diverge. Gradient descent is often more robust in this regard.

NonConvex Functions: In nonconvex optimization problems, which are common in machine learning, the landscape of the objective function can have multiple local minima. Newton's method is not guaranteed to converge to the global minimum, and it can get stuck in a local minimum. Gradient descent may have better exploration capabilities in such cases.

Regularization: In some machine learning models and scenarios, regularization terms are added to the objective function. These terms can affect the optimization landscape and may favor gradientbased methods like gradient descent or variants such as stochastic gradient descent.
Table 3872. Newton's method versus gradient descent.

Newton's method 
Gradient descent 
Main appications 
Small vectors 
Large vectors 
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