Electron microscopy
Feature and Feature Vector (Extract Features)
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In machine learning and pattern recognition, a feature is an individual measurable property or characteristic of a phenomenon. In fact, the items (e.g. some specific columns in a csv file) that are inputted into the training model (and later used to make predictions) are called "features." In other words, the features is the representation of data in the form that can be used to map input data to the output, that is, the feature is a value that is passed as input to a model.

"X" in the Naive Bayes classification and many other machine learning algorithms often represents the feature vector. A feature vector is a numerical representation of the features or attributes of a data point. Each component or element of the feature vector corresponds to a specific feature, and together they provide a concise and structured representation of the data for the algorithm to work with. In Naive Bayes classification for text, word frequencies, presence or absence of specific words, and other relevant properties of the text are used to create feature vectors. These feature vectors are numerical representations of the text data that the Naive Bayes algorithm uses for classification. This approach represents the document as a binary feature vector. Each element in the vector corresponds to the presence (1) or absence (0) of a particular word in the document:

          Binary Classification ------------------------------------------------------- [4105a]

          Binary Classification ------------------------------------------------------- [4105b]

Each element in this vector in Equation 4026c represents the value of a specific feature. For instance, word Xi indicates {word i appears in an document}

For multinomial Naive Bayes algorithm, we have,

          multinomial Naive Bayes algorithm --------------------------------------- [4105c]


  • p(x|y) represents the conditional probability of the data point x belonging to class y.
  • xj represents the jth feature or attribute of the data point x. This means that in a dataset, you might have multiple features (e.g., words in a text document, attributes of an object, etc.), and x_j refers to one of these features.
  • p(xj|y) represents the conditional probability of the jth feature xj given the class y. In other words, it's the probability that a specific feature is observed in data points belonging to class y.

For instance, for house prices depending on the house size, we have the table below,

Table 4015a. House prices depending on the house size.

Size (sqr feet) 100 200 400 800 1200

xj in Table 4015a are considered as features. Features are also known as independent variables or predictors, and they are the input variables used to make predictions or estimate an outcome, which in this case is house prices.

Similarly, the words in a document in Table 4015b also shows the feature vector xj.

Table 4015b. House prices depending on the house size.

Words Yes No Hello How Spam

TF-IDF is a more advanced way to create feature vectors for text data. It takes into account the frequency of words in a document relative to their frequency across the entire dataset. This allows it to emphasize words that are important to a specific document while de-emphasizing

In logistic regression, the logistic function maps any input value to a value between 0 and 1, namely hθ(x) ∈ [0,1], which can be interpreted as the probability of the observation belonging to one of the two classes. Then, we have hypothesis fuction given by:

          hypothesis fuction ---------------------- [4015d]


  • is the predicted probability that the input example belongs to the positive class (class 1).
  • is the logistic (sigmoid) function, which maps any real number to the range [0, 1].
  • is a vector of model parameters, and is its transpose.
  • is the feature vector of the input example.

One example is that both Multinomial Naive Bayes and the standard (single) Naive Bayes algorithm can work with feature vectors.

  1. Multinomial Naive Bayes: This algorithm is commonly used for text classification tasks, such as document classification or spam email detection. In this context, feature vectors are created based on word frequencies or counts. Each term (word) in the document or text is treated as a feature, and the count or frequency of each term in the document is used to build a feature vector. These feature vectors represent the documents, and Multinomial Naive Bayes is used to classify them based on the frequency distribution of words.

  2. Single Naive Bayes (Gaussian Naive Bayes): While Multinomial Naive Bayes is specifically designed for discrete data like word counts, the standard Naive Bayes algorithm can work with continuous or real-valued data. In this case, each feature in the feature vector can be a continuous value (e.g., temperature, weight, height) instead of discrete counts. Gaussian Naive Bayes is a common variant of Naive Bayes used when dealing with continuous data, and it assumes that the features follow a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

Training data sets require several example predictor variables to classify or predict a response. In machine learning, the predictor variables are called features and the responses are called labels. A feature vector is an ordered list of numerical properties of observed phenomena. Before being input into an ML model, raw data must be turned into feature vectors as shown in Figure 4105a.

High-level overview of the proposed ML method in the publication

Figure 4105a. High-level overview of the proposed ML method in the publication. Video-level feature vectors are extracted from the training videos to train a machine-learning model.. [1]

Figure 4105b shows simplified overview of a machine learning workflow. The machine learning model is trained on input data gathered from different databases. Once it is trained, it can be applied to make predictions for other input data.

Simplified overview of a machine learning workflow

Figure 4105b. Simplified overview of a machine learning workflow. [2]

A good feature should have the following characteristics:
          i) Should be related to the objective.
          ii) Should be known at prediction time.
          iii) Should be numeric with meaningful magnitude.

Sequential API can be used to create a Keras model with TensorFlow (e.g. on Vertex AI platform). Then, the Keras Sequential API and Feature Columns can be used to build deep neural network (DNN). In combination with a trained model, the Keras model can be saved, loaded and deployed, and then the model can be called for making predictions.

Wrangler and Data Pipeline features in Cloud Data Fusion can be used to clean, transform, and process data for further analysis.

Batch serving and online serving are the two methods feature store offers for serving features.










[1] Domonkos Varga, No-Reference Video Quality Assessment Based on Benford’s Law and Perceptual Features, Electronics 2021, 10, 2768.
[2] Siwar Chibani and François-Xavier Coudert, Machine learning approaches for the prediction of materials properties, APL Mater. 8, 080701 (2020); https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0018384.