返回无国界华人网首页 返回历年考研究生试题集  



Part Ⅰ Structure and Vocabulary
Section A
Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A],[B],[C] and [D

].Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by

blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)
I have been to the Great Wall three times _________ 1979.
[A]from [B]after [C]for [D]since
The sentence should read, "I have been to the Great Wall three times since 1979." Therefore, you

should choose [D].
Sample Answer
1.If I were in movie, then it would be about time that I _________ my head in my hands for a cry.
[A]bury [B]am burying [C]buried [D]would bury
2.Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port _________

half a day before the defenders actually surrendered.
[A]to announce [B]announced [C]announcing [D]was announced
3.According to one belief, if truth is to be known it will make itself apparent, so one _________

wait instead of searching for it.
[A]would rather [B]had to [C]cannot but [D]had best
4.She felt suitably humble just as she _________ when he had first taken a good look at her city

self, hair waved and golden, nails red and pointed.
[A]had [B]had had [C]would have and [D]has had
5.There was no sign that Mr. Jospin, who keeps a firm control on the party despite _________ from

leadership of it, would intervene personally.
[A] being resigned [B]having resigned
[C]going to resign [D]resign
6.So involved with their computers _________ that leaders at summer computer camps often have to

force them to break for sports and games.
[A]became the children [B]become the children
[C]had the children become [D]do the children become
7.The individual TV viewer invariably senses that he or she is _________ an anonymous,

statistically insignificant part of a huge and diverse audience.
[A]everything except [B]anything but
[C]no less than [D]nothing more than
8.One difficulty in translation lies in obtaining a concept match. _________ this is meant that a

concept in one language is lost or changed in meaning in translation.
[A]By [B]In [C]For [D]With
9.Conversation becomes weaker in a society that spends so much time listening and being talked to

_________ it has all but lost the will and the skill to speak for itself.
[A]as [B]which [C]that [D]what
10.Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, _________ they Christian,

Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on.
[A]be [B]being [C]were [D]are
Section B
Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A],[B],[C] and [D

].Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by

blackening the corresponding letter in the rackets with a pencil. (10 points)
The lost car of the Lees was found _________ in the woods off the highway.
[A]vanished [B]scattered [C]abandoned [D]rejected
The sentence should read. "The lost car of the Lees was found abandoned in the woods off the

highway." There fore, you should choose [C].
Sample Answer
11.He is too young to be able to _________ between right and wrong.
[A]discard [B]discern [C]disperse [D]disregard
12.It was no _________ that his car was seen near the bank at the time of the robbery.
[A]coincidence [B]convention [C]certainty [D]complication
13.One of the responsibilities of the Coast Guard is to make sure that all ships _________ follow

traffic rules in busy harbors.
[A]cautiously [B]dutifully [C]faithfully [D]skillfully
14.The Eskimo is perhaps one of the most trusting and considerate of all Indians but seems to be

_________ the welfare of his animals.
[A]critical about[B]indignant at [C]indifferent to[D]subject to
15.The chairman of the board _________ on me the unpleasant job of dismissing good workers the

firm can no longer afford to employ.
[A]compelled [B]posed [C]pressed [D]tempted
16.It is naive to expect that any society can resolve all the social problems it is faced with

[A]for long [B]in and out [C]once for all [D]by nature
17.Using extremely different decorating schemes in adjoining rooms may result in _________ and

lack of unity in style.
[A]conflict [B]confrontation[C]disturbance [D]disharmony
18.The Timber rattlesnake is now on the endangered species list, and is extinct in two eastern

states in which it once _________.
[A]thrived [B]swelled [C]prospered [D]flourished
19.However, growth in the fabricated metals industry was able to _________ some of the decline in

the iron and steel industry.
[A]overturn [B]overtake [C]offset [D]oppress
20.Because of its intimacy, radio is usually more than just a medium; it is _________.
[A]firm [B]coMPAny [C]corporation [D]enterprise
21.When any non-human organ is transplanted into a person, the body immediately recognizes it as

[A]novel [B]remote [C]distant [D]foreign
22.My favorite radio song is the one I first heard on a thick 1923 Edison disc I _________ at a

garage sale.
[A]trifled with [B]scraped through[C]stumbled upon[D]thirsted for
23.Some day software will translate both written and spoken language so well that the need for

any common second language could _________.
[A]descend [B]decline [C]deteriorate [D]depress
24.Equipment not _________ official safety standards has all been removed from the workshop.
[A]conforming to [B]consistent with
[C]predominant over [D]providing for
25.As an industry, biotechnology stands to _________ electronics in dollar volume and perhaps

surpass it in social iMPAct by 2020.
[A]contend [B]contest [C]rival [D]strive
26.The authors of the United States Constitution attempted to establish an effective national

government while preserving _________ for the states and liberty for individuals.
[A]autonomy [B]dignity [C]monopoly [D]stabilit
27.For three quarters of its span on Earth, life evolved almost _________ as microorganisms.
[A]precisely [B]instantly [C]initially [D]exclusively
28.The introduction of gunpowder gradually made the bow and arrow _________, particularly in

Western Europe.
[A]obscure [B]obsolete [C]optional [D]overlapping
29.Whoever formulated the theory of the origin of the universe, it is just _________ and needs

[A]spontaneous [B]hypothetical [C]intuitive [D]empirical
30.The future of this coMPAny is _________: many of its talented employees are flowing into more

profitable net-based businesses.
[A]at odds [B]in trouble [C]in vain [D]at stake

Part Ⅱ Cloze Test
For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices marked [A],[B],[C]

and [D]. Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the

corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)
The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in

prominent cases 31 the trial of Rosemary West.
In a significant 32 of legal controls over the press. Lord Irvine, the Lord Chancellor, will

introduce a 33 bill that will propose making payments to witnesses 34 and will strictly

control the amount of 35 that can be given to a case 36 a trial begins.
In a letter to Gerald Kaufman, chairman of the House of Commons media select committee. Lord

Irvine said he 37 with a committee report this year which said that self regulation did not

38 sufficient control.
39 of the letter came two days after Lord Irvine caused a 40 of media protest when he said

the 41 of privacy controls contained in European legislation would be left to judges 42

to Parliament.
The Lord Chancellor said introduction of the Human Rights Bill, which 43 the European

Convention on Human Rights legally 44 in Britain, laid down that everybody was 45 to

privacy and that public figures could go to court to protect themselves and their families.
"Press freedoms will be in safe hands 46 our British judges," he said.
Witness payments became an 47 after West was sentenced to 10 life sentences in 1995. Up to 19

witnesses were 48 to have received payments for telling their stories to newspapers. Concerns

were raised 49 witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to 50

guilty verdicts.
31.[A]as to [B]for instance [C]in particular[D]such as
32.[A]tightening [B]intensifying [C]focusing [D]fastening
33.[A]sketch [B]rough [C]preliminary [D]draft
34.[A]illogical [B]illegal [C]improbable [D]improper
35.[A]publicity [B]penalty [C]popularity [D]peculiarity
36.[A]since [B]if [C]before [D]as
37.[A]sided [B]shared [C]complied [D]agreed
38.[A]present [B]offer [C]manifest [D]indicate
39.[A]Release [B]Publication [C]Printing [D]Exposure
40.[A]storm [B]rage [C]flare [D]flash
41.[A]translation [B]interpretation[C]exhibition [D]demonstration
42.[A]better than [B]other than [C]rather than [D]sooner than
43.[A]changes [B]makes [C]sets [D]turns
44.[A]binding [B]convincing [C]restraining [D]sustaining
45.[A]authorized [B]credited [C]entitled [D]qualified
46.[A]with [B]to [C]from [D]by
47.[A]iMPAct [B]incident [C]inference [D]issue
48.[A]stated [B]remarked [C]said [D]told
49.[A]what [B]when [C]which [D]that
50.[A]assure [B]confide [C]ensure [D]guarantee

Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four

answers marked [A],[B],[C] and [D].Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer

to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding

letter in the brackets with a pencil.(40 points)

Passage 1
Specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of

scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could

continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But

specialization was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process

of communication. Another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity.
No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exceptions

can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word 'amateur' does carry a connotation that the

person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may

not fully share its values. The growth of specialization in the nineteenth century, with its

consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur

participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based

especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the

development of geology in the United Kingdom.
A coMPArison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not

simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what

constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological

studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local

studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporatel, and

reflect on, the wider geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue

local studies in the old way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional

geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread

introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by

several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this

development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or

amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional

geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs

have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different

Although the process of professionalisation and specialization was already well under way in

British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the

twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the

crucial period for this change in the structure of science.
51.The growth of specialization in the 19th century might be more clearly seen in sciences such

as _________.
[A]sociology and chemistry
[B]physics and psychology
[C]sociology and psychology
[D]physics and chemistry
52.We can infer from the passage that _________.
[A] there is little distinction between specialization and
[B]amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas of science
[C]professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientific community
[D]amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones
53.The author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate _________.
[A]the process of specialization and professionalisation
[B]the hardship of amateurs in scientific study
[C]the change of policies in scientific publications
[D]the discrimination of professionals against amateurs
54.The direct reason for specialization is _________.
[A]the development in communication
[B]the growth of professionalisation
[C]the expansion of scientific knowledge
[D]the splitting up of academic societies

Passage 2
A great deal of attention is being paid today to the so called digital divide-the division of the

world into the info(information) rich and the info poor. And that divide does exist today. My

wife and I lectured about this looming danger twenty years ago. What was less visible then,

however, were the new, positive forces that work against the digital divide. There are reasons to

be optimistic.
There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. As the Internet becomes

more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access-after all,

the more people online, the more potential customers there are. More and more governments, afraid

their countries will be left behind, want to spread Internet access. Within the next decade or

two, one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together. As a result, I now believe

the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news

because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for coMBAting world poverty that we've

ever had.
Of course, the use of the Internet isn't the only way to defeat poverty. And the Internet is not

the only tool we have. But it has enormous potential.
To take advantage of this tool, some impoverished countries will have to get over their outdated

anti-colonial prejudices with respect to foreign investment. Countries that still think foreign

investment is an invasion of their sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructure

(the basic structural foundations of a society) in the United States. When the United States

built its industrial infrastructure, it didn't have the capital to do so. And that is why

America's Second Wave infrastructure-including roads, harbors, highways, ports and so on-were

built with foreign investment. The English, the Germans, the Dutch and the French were investing

in Britain's former colony. They financed them. Immigrant Americans built them. Guess who owns

them now? The Americans. I believe the same thing would be true in places like Brazil or anywhere

else for that matter. The more foreign capital you have helping you build your Third Wave

infrastructure, which today is an electronic infrastructure, the better off you're going to be.

That doesn't mean lying down and becoming fooled, or letting foreign corporations run

uncontrolled. But it does mean recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and

telecom infrastructures needed to take full advantage of the Internet.
55.Digital divide is something _________.
[A]getting worse because of the Internet
[B]the rich countries are responsible for
[C]the world must guard against
[D]considered positive today
56.Governments attach importance to the Internet because it _________.
[A]offers economic potentials
[B]can bring foreign funds
[C]can soon wipe out world poverty
[D]connects people all over the world
57.The writer mentioned the case of the United States to justify the policy of _________.
[A]providing financial support overseas
[B]preventing foreign capital's control
[C]building industrial infrastructure
[D]accepting foreign investment
58.It seems that now a country's economy depends much on _________.
[A]how well developed it is electronically
[B]whether it is prejudiced against immigrants
[C]whether it adopts America's industrial pattern
[D]how much control it has over foreign corporations

Passage 3
Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society of

Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long

self-analysis known as the journalism credibility project.
Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low-level findings about factual errors and

spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head-scratching puzzlement about what in the

world those readers really want.
But the sources of distrust go way deeper. Most journalists learn to see the world through a set

of standard templates (patterns) into which they plug each day's events. In other words, there is

a conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready-made

narrative structure for otherwise confusing news.
There exists a social and cultural disconnect between journalists and their readers, which helps

explain why the "standard templates" of the newsroom seem alien to many readers. In a recent

survey, questionnaires were sent to reporters in five middle-size cities around the country, plus

one large metropolitan area. Then residents in these communities were phoned at random and asked

the same questions.
Replies show that coMPAred with other Americans, journalists are more likely to live in upscale

neighborhoods, have maids, own Mercedeses, and trade stocks, and they're less likely to go to

church, do volunteer work, or put down roots in a community.
Reporters tend to be part of a broadly defined social and cultural elite, so their work tends to

reflect the conventional values of this elite. The astonishing distrust of the news media isn't

rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorial skills but in the daily clash of world views between

reporters and their readers.
This is an explosive situation for any industry, particularly a declining one. Here is a troubled

business that keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. Then it sponsors

lots of symposiums and a credibility project dedicated to wondering why customers are annoyed and

fleeing in large numbers. But it never seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class

biases that so many former buyers are complaining about. If it did, it would open up its

diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ

broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.
59.What is the passage mainly about?
[A]needs of the readers all over the world
[B]causes of the public disappointment about newspapers
[C]origins of the declining newspaper industry
[D]aims of a journalism credibility project
60.The results of the journalism credibility project turned out to
be .
[A]quite trustworthy
[B]somewhat contradictory
[C]very illuminating
[D]rather superficial
61.The basic problem of journalists as pointed out by the writer lies in
their _________.
[A]working attitude
[B]conventional lifestyle
[C]world outlook
[D]educational background
62.Despite its efforts, he newspaper industry still cannot satisfy the
readers owing to its _________.
[A]failure to realize its real problem
[B]tendency to hire annoying reporters
[C]likeliness to do inaccurate reporting
[D]prejudice in matters of race and gender

Passage 4
The world is going through the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions ever witnessed. The

process sweeps from hyperactive America to Europe and reaches the emerging countries with

unsurpassed might. Many in these countries are looking at this process and worrying:"Won't the

wave of business concentration turn into an uncontrollable anti-competitive force?"
There's no question that the big are getting bigger and more powerful. Multinational corporations

accounted for less than 20% of international trade in 1982.Today the figure is more than 25% and

growing rapidly. International affiliates account for a fast-growing segment of production in

economies that open up and welcome foreign investment. In Argentina, for instance, after the

reforms of the early 1990s,multinationals went from 43% to almost 70% of the industrial

production of the 200 largest firms. This phenomenon has created serious concerns over the role

of smaller economic firms, of national businessmen and over the ultimate stability of the world

I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&A wave are the same that underlie

the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and

investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting

customer's demands. All these are beneficial, not detrimental, to consumers. As productivity

grows, the world's wealth increases.
Examples of benefits or costs of the current concentration wave are scanty. Yet it is hard to

imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could re-create the same threats to competition

that were feared nearly a century ago in the U.S., when the Standard Oil trust was broken up. The

mergers of telecom coMPAnies, such as WorldCom, hardly seem to bring higher prices for consumers

or a reduction in the pace of technical progress. On the contrary, the price of communications is

coming down fast. In cars, too, concentration is increasing-witness Daimler and Chrysler, Renault

and Nissan-but it does not appear that consumers are being hurt.
Yet the fact remains that the merger movement must be watched. A few weeks ago, Alan Greenspan

warned against the megamergers in the banking industry. Who is going to supervise, regulate and

operate as lender of last resort with the gigantic banks that are being created? Won't

multinationals shift production from one place to another when a nation gets too strict about

infringements to fair competition? And should one country take upon itself the role of "defending

competition" on issues that affect many other nations, as in the U.S. vs. Microsoft case?
63.What is the typical trend of businesses today?
[A]to take in more foreign funds
[B]to invest more abroad
[C]to combine and become bigger
[D]to trade with more countries
64.According to the author, one of the driving forces behind M&A wave is _________.
[A]the greater customer demands
[B]a surplus supply for the market
[C]a growing productivity
[D]the increase of the world's wealth
65.From paragraph 4 we can infer that _________.
[A]the increasing concentration is certain to hurt consumers
[B]WorldCom serves as a good example of both benefits and costs
[C]the costs of the globalization process are enormous
[D]the Stanard Oil trust might have threatened competition
66.Toward the new business wave, the writer's attitude can be said to be _________.

Passage 5
When I decided to quit my full time employment it never occurred to me that I might become a part

of a new international trend. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional

progress prompted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a

disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming "I wanted to spend more time with my

Curiously, some two-and-a-half years and two novels later, my experiment in what the Americans

term "downshifting" has turned my tired excuse into an absolute reality. I have been transformed

from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of "having it all",preached by Linda Kelsey for the

past seven years in the page of She magazine, into a woman who is happy to settle for a bit of

I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the

editorship of She after a build up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of "juggling your

life",and making the alternative move into "downshifting" brings with it far greater rewards than

financial success and social status. Nothing could persuade me to return to the kind of life

Kelsey used to advocate and I once enjoyed:12 hour working days, pressured deadlines, the fearful

strain of office politics and the limitations of being a parent on "quality time".
In America, the move away from juggling to a simpler, less materialistic lifestyle is a

well-established trend. Downshifting-also known in America as "voluntary simplicity"-has,

ironically, even bred a new area of what might be termed anticonsumerism. There are a number of

best-selling downshifting self-help books for people who want to simplify their lives; there are

newsletters, such as The Tightwad Gazette, that give hundreds of thousands of Americans useful

tips on anything from recycling their cling-film to making their own soap; there are even support

groups for those who want to achieve the mid-'90s equivalent of dropping out.
While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline-after the mass

redundancies caused by downsizing in the late'80s-and is still linked to the politics of thrift,

in Britain, at least among the middle-class down-shifters of my acquaintance, we have different

reasons for seeking to simplify our lives.
For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the'80s,downshifting in

the mid-'90s is not so much a search for the mythical good life-growing your own organic

vegetables, and risking turning into one-as a personal recognition of your limitations.
67.Which of the following is true according to paragraph 1?
[A]Full-time employment is a new international trend.
[B]The writer was compelled by circumstances to leave her job.
[C]"A lateral move" means stepping out of full-time employment.
[D]The writer was only too eager to spend more time with her family.
68.The writer's experiment shows that downshifting _________.
[A]enables her to realize her dream
[B]helps her mold a new philosophy of life
[C]prompts her to abandon her high social status
[D]leads her to accept the doctrine of [WTBX]she magazine
69."Juggling one's life" probably means living a life characterized by _________.
[A]non-materialistic lifestyle
[B]a bit of everything
[C]extreme stress
70.According to the passage, downshifting emerged in the U.S. as a result
of _________.
[A]the quick pace of modern life
[B]man's adventurous spirit
[C]man's search for mythical experiences
[D]the economic situation

Part Ⅳ English-Chinese Translation
Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.

Your translation must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(15 points)
In less than 30 year's time the Star Trek holodeck will be a reality. Direct links between the

brain's nervous system and a computer will also create full sensory virtual environments,

allowing virtual vacations like those in the film Total Recall.
71)There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that

will disable them when they offend. 72) Children will play with dolls equipped with personality

chips, computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools,

relaxation will be in front of smell-television, and digital age will have arrived.
According to BT's futurologist, Ian Pearson, these are among the developments scheduled for the

first few decades of the new millennium(a period of 1,000 years), when supercomputers will

dramatically accelerate progress in all areas of life.
73)Pearson has pieced together to work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a

unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of

key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place. Some of the biggest developments will be in

medicine, including an extended life expectancy and dozens of artificial organs coming into use

between now and 2040.
Pearson also predicts a breakthrough in computer human links. "By linking directly to our nervous

system, computers could pick up what we feel and, hopefully, simulate feeling too so that we can

start to develop full sensory environments, rather like the holidays in Total Recall or the Star

Trek holodeck," he says. 74)But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man-machine

integration:"It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately

lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century."
Through his research, Pearson is able to put dates to most of the breakthroughs that can be

predicted. However, there are still no forecasts for when faster-than-light travel will be

available, or when human cloning will be perfected, or when time travel will be possible. But he

does expect social problems as a result of technological advances. A boom in neighborhood

surveillance cameras will, for example, cause problems in 2010, while the arrival of synthetic

lifelike robots will mean people may not be able to distinguish between their human friends and

the droids. 75)And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them

will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder-kitchen rage.

Part Ⅴ Writing
Among all the worthy feelings of mankind, love is probably the noblest, but everyone has his/her

own understanding of it.
There has been a discussion recently on the issue in a newspaper. Write an essay to the newspaper

1) show your understanding of the symbolic meaning of the picture below,
2) give a specific example, and
3) give your suggestion as to the best way to show love.
You should write about 200 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)