卦指涙忽順鯖繁利遍匈 卦指煽定深冩梢伏編籾鹿  



  Section I Listening Comprehension
   This section is designed to test your ability to understand spoken English. You will hear a

selection of recorded materials and you must answer the questions that accompany them. There are

three parts in this section, Part A, Part B, and Part C.
   Remember, while you should first put down your answers in your test booklet. At the end of

the listening comprehension section, you will have five minutes to transfer all your answers from

your test booklet to Answer Sheet I.
   Now look at Part At your test booklet.
   Part A
   For Question 1-5, you will hear a talk about Boston Museum of Fine Art. While you listen,

fill out the table with the information you have heard. Some of the information has been given to

you in the table. Write Only 1 word or number in each numbered box. You will hear the recording

twice. You now have 25 seconds to read the table below.(5 points)
   Boston Museum of Fine Arts Founded( year ) 1870 Opened to the public( year ) Question 1
   Moved to the current location ( year ) 1909 The west wing completed( year ) Question 2 Number

of departments 9 The most remarkable department Question 3
   Exhibition Space ( m2 ) Question 4 Approximate number of visitors/year 800,000 Programs

provided classes lectures Question 5 films
   Part B
   For Questions 6-10, you will hear an interview with an expert on marriage problems. While you

listen, complete the sentences or answer the questions. USe not more than 3 words for each

answer. You will hear the recording twice. You now have 25 seconds to read the sentences and

questions below. ( 5 points )
   What should be the primary source of help for a troubled couple? __________ . Question 6
   Writing down a list of problems in the marriage may help a troubled couple discuss

them_______ . Question 7
   Who should a couple consider seriously turning to if they can't talk with each other?

_________ . Question 8
   Priests are usually unsuccessful in counseling troubled couples despite their _______ .

Question 9
   According to the old notion, what will make hearts grow fonder? _______. Question 10
   Part C
   You will hear three pieces of recorded material. Before listening to each one, you will have

time to read the questions related to it. While listening, answer each question by choosing A,B,C

or D . After listening, you will have time to check your answers you will hear each piece once

only. ( 10 points )
   Questions 11-13 are based on the following talk about napping, you now have 15 seconds to

read questions 11-13.
   11. Children under five have abundant energy partly because they _________ .
   A. Sleep in three distinct parts.
   B. have many five-minute naps.
   C. sleep in one long block.
   D. take one or two naps daily.
   12. According to the speaker, the sleep pattern of a baby is determined by_______ .
   A. its genes
   B. its habit
   C. its mental state
   D. its physical condition
   13. The talk suggests that, if you feel sleepy through the day, you should______ .
   A. take some refreshment.
   B. go to bed early
   C. have a long rest
   D. give in to sleep.
   Questions 14-16 are based on the following interview with Sherman Alexie. an American Indian

poet.You now have 15 seconds to read Questions 14-16. 14. Why did Sherman Alexie only take day

   A. he Could bring unfinished work home.
   B. He might have time to pursue his interests. C. He might do some evening teaching. D. He

could invest more emotion in his family. 15.What was his original goal at college?
   A. to teach in high school .
   B. to write his own books.
   C. to be a medical doctor.
   D. to be a mathematician.
   16. Why did he take the poetry-writing class?
   A. To follow his father. B. For an easy grade. C. To change his specialty.
   D. For knowledge of poetry.
   Questions 17-20 are based on the following talk about public speaking. you know have 20

seconds to read Questions 17-20.
   17. What is the most important thing in public speaking ?
   A. Confidence.
   B. Preparation.
   C. Informativeness.
   D. Organization.
   18. What does the speaker advise us to do to capture the audience's attention
   A. Gather abundant data.
   B. Organize the idea logically.
   C. Develop a great opening.
   D. Select appropriate material. 19. If you don't start working for the presentation until the

day before, you will feel _____ .
   A. uneasy
   B. uncertain
   C. frustrated
   D. depressed
   20. Who is this speech ,ost probably meant for?
   A. Those interested in the power of persuasion. B. Those trying to improve their public

   C. Those planning to take up some public work.
   D. Those eager to become effective speakers.
   You now have 5 minutes to transfer all your answers from your test booklet to ANSWER SHEET 1.
   Section II Use of English
   Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D

on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
   Teachers need to be aware of the emotional, intellectual, and physical changes that young

adults experience. And they also need to give serious 21 to how they can be best 22 such changes.

Growing bodies need movement and 23 , but not just in ways that emphasize competition. 24 they

are adjusting to their new bodies and a whole host of new intellectual and emotional challenges,

teenagers are especially self-concious and need the 25 that comes from achieving success and

knowing that their accomplishments are 26 by others. However, the typical teenage lifestyle is

already filled with so much competition that it would be 27 to plan activities in which thereare

more winners than losers, 28 ,publishing newsletters with many student-written book reviews, 29

student artwork, and sponsoring book discussion clubs. A variety of small clubs can provide 30

opportunities for leadership, as well as for practice in successful 31 dynamics. Making friends

is extremely important to teenagers, and many shy students need the 32 of some kind of

organization with a supportive adult 33 visible in the background.
   In these activities, it is important to remember that the young teens have 34 attention

spans. A variety of activities should be organized 35 participants can remain active as long as

they want and then go on to 36 else without feeling guity and without letting the other

participants 37 . this does not mean that adults must accept irresponsibity. 38 they can help

students acquire a sense of commitment by 39 for roles that are within their 40 and their

attention spans and byshavingsclearly stated rules.
   21. A. thought B.idea C. opinion D. advice
   22. A. strengthen B. accommodate C. stimulate D. enhance
   23. A. care B. nutrition C. exercise D. leisure
   24. A. If B. Although C. Whereas D. Because
   25. A. assistance B. guidance C. confidence D. tolerance
   26. A. claimed B. admired C. ignored D. surpassed
   27. A. improper B. risky C. fair D. wise
   28. A. in effect B. as a result C. for example D. in a sense
   29. A. displaying B. describing C. creating D. exchanging
   30. A. durable B. exessive C. surplus D. multiple
   31. A.sgroupsB. individual C. personnel D. corporation
   32. A. consent B. insurance C. admission D. security
   33. A. particularly B. barely C. definitely D. rarely
   34. A. similiar B. long C. different D. short
   35. A. if only B. now that C. so that D. even if
   36. A. everything B. anything C. nothing D. something
   37. A. off B. down C. out D. alone
   38. A. On the contrary B. On the average C. On the whole D. On the other hand
   39. A. making B. standing C. planning D. taking
   40. A. capability B. responsibility C. proficiency D. efficiency
   21-25 DBCC?C
   26-30 BDCAD
   31-35 B?CBCC
   36-40 DBACA
   Section III Reading Comprehension
   Directions: Read the following fore texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing

A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANAWER SHEET 1(40 points)
   Text 1
   Wild Bill Donovan would have loved the Internet. The American spymaster who built the Office

of Strategic Services in the World War II and later laid the roots for the CIA was fascinated

with information. Donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the "great game " of

espionage-----spying as a "profession." These days the Net, which has already re-made pastimes as

buying books and sending mail, is reshaping Donovan's vocation as well.
   The last revolution isn't simply a matter of gentlemen reading other gentlemen's e-mail. That

kind of electronic spying has been going on for decades. In the past three or four years, the

world wide web has given birth to a whole industry of point-and-click spying. The spooks call it

"open source intelligence," and as the Net grows, it is becoming increasingly influential. in

1995 the CIA held a contest to see who could compile the most data about Burundi. The winner, by

a large margin, was a tiny Virginia company called Open-Source Solutionswhose clear advantage

was its mastery of the electronic world.
   Among the firms making the biggest splash in the new world is Straitford, Inc., a private

intelligence-analysis firm based in Austin, Texas. Straitford makes money by selling the results

of spying(covering nations from Chile to Russia) to corporations like energy-services firm

McDermott International. Many of its predictions are available online at www.straitford.com.
   Straifford president George Friedman says he sees the online world as a kind of mutually

reinforcing tool for both information collection and distribution, a spymaster's dream. Last week

his firm was busy vacuuming up data bits from the far corners of the world and predicting a

crisis in Ukraine." As soon as that report runs, we'll suddenly get 500 new internet sign-ups

from Ukraine," says Friedman, a former political science professor. "And we'll hear back from

some of them." Open-source spying does have its risks, of course, since it can be difficult to

tell good information from bad. That 'sswheresStraitford earns its keep.
   Friedman relies on a lean staff in Austin. Several of his staff members have

military-intelligence backgrounds. He sees the firm's outsider status as the key to its success.

Straitford's briefs don't sound like the usual Washington back-and forthing, whereby agencies

avoid dramatic declarations on the chance they might be wrong. Straitford, says Friedman, takes

pride in its independent voice.
   41. The emergence of the Net has
   A. received support from fans like Donovan.
   B. remolded the intelligence services.
   C. restored many common pastimes.
   D. revived spying as a profession.
   42.Donovan's story is mentioned in the text to
   A. introduce the topic of online spying.
   B. show how he fought for the U.S.
   C. give an episode of the information war.
   D. honor his unique services to the CIA.
   43.The phrase^making the biggest splash ̄(line 1,paragraph 3)most probably means
   A. causing the biggest trouble.
   B. exerting the greatest effort.
   C. achieving the greatest success.
   D. enjoying the widest popularity.
   44.It can be learned from paragraph 4 that
   A. Straitford's prediction about Ukraine has proved true.
   B. Straitford guarantees the truthfulness of its information.
   C. Straitford's business is characterized by unpredictability.
   D. Straitford is able to provide fairly reliable information.
   45.Straitford is most proud of its
   A. official status.
   B. nonconformist image.
   C. efficient staff.
   D. military background.
   Text 2 To paraphrase 18th-century statesman Edmund Burke,^all that is needed for the triumph

of a misguided cause is that good people do nothing. ̄One such cause now seeks to end biomedical

research because of the theory that animals have rights ruling out their use in research.

Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments are confusing

the public and thereby threatening advances in health knowledge and care. Leaders of the animal

rights movement target biomedical research because it depends on public funding, and few people

understand the process of health care research. Hearing allegations of cruelty to animals in

research settings, many are perplexed that anyone would deliberately harm an animal.
   For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rights booth at a recent street fair

was distributing a brochure that encouraged readers not to use anything that opposed

immunizations, she wanted to know if vaccines come from animal research. When assured that they

do, she replied,^Then I would have to say yes. ̄Asked what will happen when epidemics return, she

said,^Don¨t worry, scientists will find some way of using computers. ̄Such well-meaning people

just don's understand.
   Scientists must communicate their message to the public in a compassionate, understandable

way-in human terms, not in the language of molecular biology. We need to make clear the

connection between animal research and a grandmother's hip replacement, a father's bypass

operation a baby's vaccinations, and even a pet's shots. To those who are unaware that animal

research was needed to produce these treatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animal

research seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst.
   Much can be done. Scientists could^adopt ̄middle school classes and present their own

research. They should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal rights

misinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth. Research institutions

could be opened to tours, to show that laboratory animals receive humane care. Finally, because

the ultimate stakeholders are patients, the health research community should actively recruit to

its cause not only well-known personalities such as Stephen Cooper, who has made courageous

statements about the value of animal research, but all who receive medical treatment. If good

people do nothing there is a real possibility that an uninformed citizenry will extinguish the

precious embers of medical progress.
   46.The author begins his article with Edmund Burke's words to
   A. call on scientists to take some actions.
   B. criticize the misguided cause of animal rights.
   C. warn of the doom of biomedical research.
   D. show the triumph of the animal rights movement.
   47.Misled people tend to think that using an animal in research is
   A. cruel but natural.
   B. inhuman and unacceptable.
   C. inevitable but vicious.
   D. pointless and wasteful.
   48.The example of the grandmotherly woman is used to show the public's
   A. discontent with animal research.
   B. ignorance about medical science.
   C. indifference to epidemics.
   D. anxiety about animal rights.
   49.The author believes that, in face of the challenge from animal rights advocates,

scientists should
   A. communicate more with the public.
   B. employ hi-tech means in research.
   C. feel no shame for their cause.
   D. strive to develop new cures.
   50. From the text we learn that Stephen Cooper is
   A. a well-known humanist.
   B. a medical practitioner.
   C. an enthusiast in animal rights.
   D. a supporter of animal research.
   Text 3
   In recent years, railroads have been combining with each other, mergingsintossuper systems,

causing heightened concerns about monopoly. As recently as 1995,the top four railroads accounted

for under 70 percent of the total ton-miles moved by rails. Next year, after a series of mergers

is completed, just four railroads will control well over 90 percent of all the freight moved by

major rail carriers.
   Supporters of the new super systems argue that these mergers will allow for substantial cost

reductions and better coordinated service. Any threat of monopoly, they argue, is removed by

fierce competition from trucks. But many shippers complain that for heavy bulk commodities

traveling long distances, such as coal, chemicals, and grain, trucking is too costly and the

railroads therefore have them by the throat.
   The vast consolidation within the rail industry means that most shippers are served by only

one rail company. Railroads typically charge such^captive ̄shippers 20 to 30 percent more than

they do when another railroad is competing for the business. Shippers who feel they are being

overcharged have the right to appeal to the federal government's Surface Transportation Board for

rate relief, but the process is expensive, time consuming, and will work only in truly extreme

   Railroads justify rate discrimination against captive shippers on the grounds that in the

long run it reduces everyone's cost. If railroads charged all customers the same average rate,

they argue, shippers who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of transportation

would do so, leaving remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up the line. It's theory

to which many economists subscribe, but in practice it often leaves railroads in the position of

determining which companies will flourish and which will fail.^Do we really want railroads to be

the arbiters of who wins and who loses in the marketplace? ̄asks Martin Bercovici, a Washington

lawyer who frequently represents shipper.
   Many captive shippers also worry they will soon be his with a round of huge rate increases.

The railroad industry as a whole, despite its brightening fortuning fortunes. still does not earn

enough to cover the cost of the capital it must invest to keep up with its surging traffic. Yet

railroads continue to borrow billions to acquire one another, with Wall Street cheering them on.

Consider the .2 billion bid by Norfolk Southern and CSX to acquire Conrail this year. Conrail's

net railway operating income in 1996 was just million, less than half of the carrying costs of

the transaction. Who's going to pay for the rest of the bill? Many captive shippers fear that

they will, as Norfolk Southern and CSX increase their grip on the market.
   51.According to those who support mergers railway monopoly is unlikely because
   A. cost reduction is based on competition.
   B. services call for cross-trade coordination.
   C. outside competitors will continue to exist.
   D. shippers will have the railway by the throat.
   52.What is many captive shippers' attitude towards the consolidation in the rail industry?
   A. Indifferent.
   B. Supportive.
   C. Indignant.
   D. Apprehensive.
   53.It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that
   A. shippers will be charged less without a rival railroad.
   B. there will soon be only one railroad company nationwide.
   C. overcharged shippers are unlikely to appeal for rate relief.
   D. a government board ensures fair play in railway business.
   54.The word^arbiters ̄(line 7,paragraph 4)most probably refers to those
   A. who work as coordinators.
   B. who function as judges.
   C. who supervise transactions.
   D. who determine the price.
   55.According to the text, the cost increase in the rail industry is mainly caused by
   A. the continuing acquisition.
   B. the growing traffic.
   C. the cheering Wall Street.
   D. the shrinking market.
   Text 4 It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada inevitable and in California

optional Small wonder. Americans' life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century.

Failing hips can be replaced, clinical depression controlled, cataracts removed in a 30-minuts

surgical procedure. Such advances offer the aging population a quality of life that was

unimaginable when I entered medicine 50 years ago. But not even a great health-care system can

cure death-and our failure to confront that reality now threatens this greatness of ours.
   Death is normal; we are genetically programmed to disintegrate and perish, even under ideal

conditions. We all understand that at some level, yet as medical consumers we treat death as a

problem to be solved. Shielded by third-party payers from the cost of our care, we demand

everything that can possibly be done for us, even if it's useless. The most obvious example is

late-stage cancer care. Physicians-frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing

loss of hope in the patient-too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is

scientifically justified.
   In1950, the U.S. spent .7 billion on health care. In 2002, the cost will be billion. Anyone

can see this trend is unsustainable. Yet few seem willing to try to reverse it. Some scholars

conclude that a government with finite resources should simply stop paying for medical care that

sustains life beyond a certain age-----say 83 or so. Former Colorado governor Richard Lamm has

been quoted as saying that the old and infirm^have a duty todie and get out of the way ̄,so that

younger, healthier people can realize their potential.
   I would not go that far. Energetic people now routinely work through their 60s and beyond,

and remain dazzlingly productive. At 78,Viacom chairman Sumner Redstone jokingly claims to be

53.Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor is in her 70s,and former surgeon general C.Everett

Koop chairs an Internet start-up in his 80s.These leaders are living proof that prevention works

and that we can manage the health problems that come naturally with age. As a mere 68-year-old,I

wish to age as productively as they have.
   Yet there are limits to what a society can spend in this pursuit. Ask a physician, I know the

most costly and dramatic measures may be ineffective and painful. I also know that people in

Japan and Sweden, countries that spend far less on medical care, have achieved longer, healthier

lives than we have. As a nation, we may be overfunding the quest for unlikely cures while

underfunding research on humbler therapies that could improve people's lives.
   56.What is implied in the first sentence?
   A. Americans are better prepared for death than other people.
   B. Americans enjoy a higher life quality than ever before.
   C. Americans are over-confident of their medical technology.
   D. Americans take a vain pride in their long life expectancy.
   57.The author uses the example of caner patients to show that
   A. medical resources are often wasted.
   B. doctors are helpless against fatal diseases.
   C. some treatments are too aggressive.
   D. medical costs are becoming unaffordable.
   58.The author's attitude to ward Richard Lamm's remark is one of
   A. strong disapproval.
   B. reserved consent.
   C. slight contempt.
   D. enthusiastic support.
   59.In contras to the U.S. ,Japan and Sweden are funding their medical care
   A. more flexibly.
   B. more extravagantly.
   C .more cautiously.
   D. more reasonably.
   60.The text intends to express the idea that
   A medicine will further prolong people's lives.
   B. life beyond a certain limit is not worth living.
   C. death should be accepted as a fact of life.
   D. excessive demands increase the cost of health care.
   Part B
   Read the following text carefully and the translate the underlines segmentssintosChinese.

Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points)
   Human beings in all times and places think about their world and wonder at their place in it.

Humans are thoughtful and creative, possessed of insatiable curiosity.(61)Furthermore, humans

have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life

forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies. Therefore, it is important to study humans in all

their richness and diversity in a calm and systematic manner, with the hope that the knowledge

resulting from such studies can lead humans to a more harmonious way of living with themselves

and with all other life forms on this planet Earth.
   ^Anthropology ̄derives from the Greek words^anthropos ̄:^human ̄and logos^the study of. ̄By its

very name, anthropology encompasses the study of all humankind.
   Anthropology is one of the social sciences.(62)Social science is that branch of intellectual

enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly,

systematic, and dispassioned(圻猟泌緩) manner that natural scientists use for the study of

natural phenomena.
   Social science disciplines include geography, economics, political science, psychology, and

sociology. Each of these social sciences has a subfield or specialization which lies particularly

close to anthropology.
   All the social sciences focus upon the study of humanity. Anthropology is a field-study

oriented discipline which makes extensive use of the comparative method in analysis.(63)The

emphasis on data gathered first-hand, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the

analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social

   Anthropological analyses rest heavily upon the concept of culture. Sir Edward Tylor¨s

formulation of the concept of culture was one of the great intellectual achievements of 19th

century science.(64)Tylor defined culture as^´that complex whole which includes belief, art,

morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of

society. ̄This insight, so profound in its simplicity, opened up an entirely new way of perceiving

and understanding human life. Implicit within Tylor¨s definition is the concept that culture is

learned. shared, and patterned behavior.
   (65)Thus, the anthropological concept of^culture, ̄like the concept of^set ̄in mathematics, is

an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.
   Section IV Writing
   1) describe the set of drawings, Interpret its meaning, and
   2) point out its implications in our life.
   You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(20 points)