X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
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Electron microscopy
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XPS spectra can be collected with an Al Kα X-ray source, and a hemispherical electron analyzer can be applied in fixed-pass energy mode (20 eV). The photoelectron take-off angle can be fixed at 45°. The energy-shift calibration can be performed by positioning the Si 2p core level from a Si substrate at 99.3 eV.

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