Electron microscopy
 
First-Order Ferroelectric Phase Transitions
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The first-order ferroelectric phase transition induces thermal hysteresis. Figure 1783 shows elastic Gibbs free energy for a first order ferroelectric phase transition at different temperatures. The polarization here is also called remanent polarization, or zero field electric displacement; the Curie-Weiss temperature represents the lowest temperature at which the paraelectric phase may exist; the Curie temperature represents the phase transition temperature; the ferroelectric limit temperature represents the highest temperature at which the ferroelectric phase may exist; and the limit temperature of field induced phase transition represents the highest temperature at which the ferroelectric phase may be induced by the external electric field.

Free energy for a first order ferroelectric phase transition at different temperatures

Figure 1783. Free energy for a first order ferroelectric phase transition at different temperatures. Four characteristic temperatures in the phase transition process: (1) T0: Curie-Weiss temperature, (2) Tc: Curie temperature, (3) T1: Ferroelectric limit temperature, and (4) T2: Limit temperature of field induced phase transition.

 

 

 

 

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