Aluminum (Al)
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Table 2025b. Properties of aluminum (Al).

Resistivity (10-6 Ω•cm)
Corrosion in air
Melting point (°C)
Specific heat capacity (Jkg-1K-1)
Thermal conductivity (Wcm-1)
Heat conductivity (kh,Wcm-1K-1)
Melt heat (Qm, J-g-1)
Vaporization heat (Qv, J-g-1)
Adhesion to SiO2
Vaporization temperature (Tv, °C)
Thermal stress per degree for
films on silicon (107 dyn cm-2 °C-1)
Youngs modulus
(10-11 dyn cm-2)
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) (10-6 °C-1)
Work Function (eV)
Absorption (1-R)
0.10 for 1 µm light
Density (g-cm-3)

Figure 2025a shows the atomic structure of Al.

Atomic structure of Al

Figure 2025a. Atomic structure of Al.

The growth rate of pure aluminum (Al) bulk follows an empirical equation given by, [1]

         growth rate of pure aluminum (Al) bulk follows ------------------------------- [2025a]

         n -- The time exponent,
         D -- The mean grain diameter,
         t -- The time of annealing,
         K -- The temperature-dependent constant given by,

         growth rate of pure aluminum (Al) bulk follows ------------------------------- [2025b]

         Q -- The activation energy for grain growth,
         K0 -- A constant,
         R -- The universal gas constant,
         T -- The absolute temperature.

Table 2025a lists the different grain growth rates of pure bulk Al and Al-4% Cu alloy thin films after 100 min annealing. The grain growth rate increased by one order of magnitude in pure bulk Al, while in the same temperature range the growth rate only increased by a factor of about 0.8 in the Al-4% Cu alloy thin films. Moreover, the growth rates for pure Al are ~103 times greater than those for the Al-4% Cu alloy films.

Table 2025a. Grain growth rates of pure bulk Al and Al-4% Cu alloy thin films after 100 min annealing.

Temperature (°C) Rate (Å/min)
Pure bulk Al [1] Al - 4% Cu films [2]
400 1.0 × 103 1.8
450 3.9 x 103 2.4
500 1.3 × 104 3.2

Figure 2025b shows the solid solubility of some impurities (including Al) in silicon.

Solid solubility of impurities in silicon

Figure 2025b. Solid solubility of impurities in silicon.

As listed in Table 2025b, substances with large bonding energies usually have high melting temperatures.

Table 2025b. Bonding energies and melting temperatures of metallic substances.

Bonding type

Bonding energy
Melting point (°C)
kJ/mol kcal/mol eV/Atom, Ion, or Molecule
Typical value 50-1000      
Hg 68 16 0.7 -39
Al 324 77 3.4 660
Fe 406 97 4.2 1538
W 849 203 8.8 3410

Figure 2025c shows the solubility for impurities (including Al) in SiC.

Solubility for impurities in SiC

Figure 2025c. Solubility for impurities in SiC.

Table 2025c. Some aluminum-based alloys.
Page on EM online book
Al87Ni7Cu3Ce3 page1433
Al72Ni20Co8 page1434






[1] P.A. Beck, L. T. Demer and M. L. Holzworth, Trans. Am. Inst. Min., Metall. Pet. Eng., 175 (1948) 372.
[2] William C. Mcbee, and John A. Mccomb, Grain Growth in Thin Aluminum-4% Copper Alloy Films, Thin Solid Films, 30 (1975) 137-143.



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