Precession electron diffraction (PED) technique has some advanced applications comparing with the conventional electron diffraction methods such as selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED):
i) The intensity of PED is an integral of diffraction intensities over a large range of deviation parameter s and thus, the zone axis pattern (e.g. [u vw]) looks aligned well even though the crystal zone axis of the TEM sample is not exactly aligned with respect to the incident electron beam.
ii) The PED patterns not only display more diffraction spots in the zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) than SAED and NBED but also show some diffraction spots in the high-order Laue zones (HOLZ) which normally do not show in SAED and NBED patterns. PED also can show more diffraction spots than the conventional diffraction techniques. Therefore, PED is a very useful for the determination of the space groups of a crystal.