- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Electromigration is the transport of atoms induced by the gradual displacement of ions in a conductor or semiconductor due to the momentum transfer between conducting electrons and diffusing metal atoms. This effect occurs when the current density is high enough to cause the drift of ions in the direction of the electron flow, and is characterized by the ion flux density. The electromigration mechanisms are related to the nature of the conductor, crystal size, interface and grain-boundary chemistry, and the magnitude of forces such as the current density, temperature and mechanical stresses. As the structure size in electronics such as integrated circuits (ICs) decreases, the practical significance of the electromigration effect increases.




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